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Crossroads between Bacterial and Mammalian Glycosyltransferases.

Brockhausen I - Front Immunol (2014)

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity.A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria.The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Queen's University , Kingston, ON , Canada ; Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University , Kingston, ON , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Bacterial glycosyltransferases (GT) often synthesize the same glycan linkages as mammalian GT; yet, they usually have very little sequence identity. Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity. Thus, bacterial GT can be utilized for the enzymatic synthesis of both bacterial and mammalian types of complex glycan structures. A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria. These epitopes include Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF or T) antigen, blood group O, A, and B, type 1 and 2 chains, Lewis antigens, sialylated and fucosylated structures, and polysialic acids. Many different approaches can be taken to investigate the substrate binding and catalytic mechanisms of GT, including crystal structure analyses, mutations, comparison of amino acid sequences, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Knowledge of the protein structures and functions helps to design GT for specific glycan synthesis and to develop inhibitors. The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria by the polymerase-dependent pathway. Many steps of the complex sequences and controls in the biosynthesis of LPS in Gram-negative bacteria are similar to those in mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis. The inner membrane serves as the site of glycan biosynthesis, and the membrane-bound acceptor is undecaprenol-phosphate (P-Und) having 11 isoprenyl units, which is less than those found in eukaryotic Dol. Nucleotide sugars are synthesized in the cytosol and used for most glycosylation reactions. As in the N-glycan biosynthesis, the first sugar is transferred as sugar-phosphate by membrane-bound WecA to synthesize GalNAc/GlcNAc-PP-Und. This step can also be blocked by tunicamycin. It is possible that a 4-epimerase is involved. Subsequently, sugars are added individually to form the repeating unit of the O antigen. The glycosyltransferases that transfer sugars from nucleotide sugars usually have a high specificity for their donor and acceptor substrates and are associated with the membrane. After Wzx transports the repeating units to the periplasm, they are polymerized by Wzy by addition of repeating units to the reducing end of the growing polysaccharide linked to PP-Dol. The O antigen can be further processed and modified to form completed O antigens and the biosynthesis is usually terminated with Wzz. The O polysaccharide is then transferred to a sugar of the core oligosaccharide linked to lipid A by a ligase, forming the LPS, which is exported to the outer membrane by the Lpt complex. The O antigenic polysaccharide is then exposed to the environment on the outer membrane. Although many bacterial enzymes involved in LPS synthesis have been cloned, the individual steps of LPS synthesis are not well understood, mainly because of the major challenge to find the appropriate enzyme substrates and conditions to assay enzymes. The example shows the biosynthesis of the E. coli O104 antigen. The repeating unit tetrasaccharide contains the cancer-associated T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc), as well as the sialyl-T antigen (sialylα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc). The WbwA sialyltransferase and the WbwB Gal-transferase remain to be characterized.
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Figure 2: Biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria by the polymerase-dependent pathway. Many steps of the complex sequences and controls in the biosynthesis of LPS in Gram-negative bacteria are similar to those in mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis. The inner membrane serves as the site of glycan biosynthesis, and the membrane-bound acceptor is undecaprenol-phosphate (P-Und) having 11 isoprenyl units, which is less than those found in eukaryotic Dol. Nucleotide sugars are synthesized in the cytosol and used for most glycosylation reactions. As in the N-glycan biosynthesis, the first sugar is transferred as sugar-phosphate by membrane-bound WecA to synthesize GalNAc/GlcNAc-PP-Und. This step can also be blocked by tunicamycin. It is possible that a 4-epimerase is involved. Subsequently, sugars are added individually to form the repeating unit of the O antigen. The glycosyltransferases that transfer sugars from nucleotide sugars usually have a high specificity for their donor and acceptor substrates and are associated with the membrane. After Wzx transports the repeating units to the periplasm, they are polymerized by Wzy by addition of repeating units to the reducing end of the growing polysaccharide linked to PP-Dol. The O antigen can be further processed and modified to form completed O antigens and the biosynthesis is usually terminated with Wzz. The O polysaccharide is then transferred to a sugar of the core oligosaccharide linked to lipid A by a ligase, forming the LPS, which is exported to the outer membrane by the Lpt complex. The O antigenic polysaccharide is then exposed to the environment on the outer membrane. Although many bacterial enzymes involved in LPS synthesis have been cloned, the individual steps of LPS synthesis are not well understood, mainly because of the major challenge to find the appropriate enzyme substrates and conditions to assay enzymes. The example shows the biosynthesis of the E. coli O104 antigen. The repeating unit tetrasaccharide contains the cancer-associated T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc), as well as the sialyl-T antigen (sialylα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc). The WbwA sialyltransferase and the WbwB Gal-transferase remain to be characterized.

Mentions: There are many similarities in the pathways and mechanisms by which bacterial O antigens and mammalian glycoproteins are synthesized. In Gram-negative bacteria, O antigens are synthesized by specific GTs at the cytosolic face of the inner membrane where the nucleotide sugar donor substrates are present, as well as the membrane-bound P-Und, an analog of the mammalian P-Dol, as the acceptor substrate for the transfer of the first sugar (48) (Figure 2). The first GT to act is always a sugar-phosphate transferase that produces the sugar-PP-Und substrate for subsequent transfer of monosaccharides by GTs. Most E. coli have GlcNAc or GalNAc at the reducing end of the repeating unit, thus sugar-phosphate transferase WecA and its orthologs are responsible for the first reaction, maintaining the α-anomeric configuration of GlcNAc. 4-Epimerases may also be involved in interconverting GlcNAc and GalNAc in the activated form (UDP-GlcNAc/UDP-GalNAc) or after the sugar transfer (49).


Crossroads between Bacterial and Mammalian Glycosyltransferases.

Brockhausen I - Front Immunol (2014)

Biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria by the polymerase-dependent pathway. Many steps of the complex sequences and controls in the biosynthesis of LPS in Gram-negative bacteria are similar to those in mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis. The inner membrane serves as the site of glycan biosynthesis, and the membrane-bound acceptor is undecaprenol-phosphate (P-Und) having 11 isoprenyl units, which is less than those found in eukaryotic Dol. Nucleotide sugars are synthesized in the cytosol and used for most glycosylation reactions. As in the N-glycan biosynthesis, the first sugar is transferred as sugar-phosphate by membrane-bound WecA to synthesize GalNAc/GlcNAc-PP-Und. This step can also be blocked by tunicamycin. It is possible that a 4-epimerase is involved. Subsequently, sugars are added individually to form the repeating unit of the O antigen. The glycosyltransferases that transfer sugars from nucleotide sugars usually have a high specificity for their donor and acceptor substrates and are associated with the membrane. After Wzx transports the repeating units to the periplasm, they are polymerized by Wzy by addition of repeating units to the reducing end of the growing polysaccharide linked to PP-Dol. The O antigen can be further processed and modified to form completed O antigens and the biosynthesis is usually terminated with Wzz. The O polysaccharide is then transferred to a sugar of the core oligosaccharide linked to lipid A by a ligase, forming the LPS, which is exported to the outer membrane by the Lpt complex. The O antigenic polysaccharide is then exposed to the environment on the outer membrane. Although many bacterial enzymes involved in LPS synthesis have been cloned, the individual steps of LPS synthesis are not well understood, mainly because of the major challenge to find the appropriate enzyme substrates and conditions to assay enzymes. The example shows the biosynthesis of the E. coli O104 antigen. The repeating unit tetrasaccharide contains the cancer-associated T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc), as well as the sialyl-T antigen (sialylα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc). The WbwA sialyltransferase and the WbwB Gal-transferase remain to be characterized.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202792&req=5

Figure 2: Biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria by the polymerase-dependent pathway. Many steps of the complex sequences and controls in the biosynthesis of LPS in Gram-negative bacteria are similar to those in mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis. The inner membrane serves as the site of glycan biosynthesis, and the membrane-bound acceptor is undecaprenol-phosphate (P-Und) having 11 isoprenyl units, which is less than those found in eukaryotic Dol. Nucleotide sugars are synthesized in the cytosol and used for most glycosylation reactions. As in the N-glycan biosynthesis, the first sugar is transferred as sugar-phosphate by membrane-bound WecA to synthesize GalNAc/GlcNAc-PP-Und. This step can also be blocked by tunicamycin. It is possible that a 4-epimerase is involved. Subsequently, sugars are added individually to form the repeating unit of the O antigen. The glycosyltransferases that transfer sugars from nucleotide sugars usually have a high specificity for their donor and acceptor substrates and are associated with the membrane. After Wzx transports the repeating units to the periplasm, they are polymerized by Wzy by addition of repeating units to the reducing end of the growing polysaccharide linked to PP-Dol. The O antigen can be further processed and modified to form completed O antigens and the biosynthesis is usually terminated with Wzz. The O polysaccharide is then transferred to a sugar of the core oligosaccharide linked to lipid A by a ligase, forming the LPS, which is exported to the outer membrane by the Lpt complex. The O antigenic polysaccharide is then exposed to the environment on the outer membrane. Although many bacterial enzymes involved in LPS synthesis have been cloned, the individual steps of LPS synthesis are not well understood, mainly because of the major challenge to find the appropriate enzyme substrates and conditions to assay enzymes. The example shows the biosynthesis of the E. coli O104 antigen. The repeating unit tetrasaccharide contains the cancer-associated T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc), as well as the sialyl-T antigen (sialylα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc). The WbwA sialyltransferase and the WbwB Gal-transferase remain to be characterized.
Mentions: There are many similarities in the pathways and mechanisms by which bacterial O antigens and mammalian glycoproteins are synthesized. In Gram-negative bacteria, O antigens are synthesized by specific GTs at the cytosolic face of the inner membrane where the nucleotide sugar donor substrates are present, as well as the membrane-bound P-Und, an analog of the mammalian P-Dol, as the acceptor substrate for the transfer of the first sugar (48) (Figure 2). The first GT to act is always a sugar-phosphate transferase that produces the sugar-PP-Und substrate for subsequent transfer of monosaccharides by GTs. Most E. coli have GlcNAc or GalNAc at the reducing end of the repeating unit, thus sugar-phosphate transferase WecA and its orthologs are responsible for the first reaction, maintaining the α-anomeric configuration of GlcNAc. 4-Epimerases may also be involved in interconverting GlcNAc and GalNAc in the activated form (UDP-GlcNAc/UDP-GalNAc) or after the sugar transfer (49).

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity.A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria.The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Queen's University , Kingston, ON , Canada ; Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University , Kingston, ON , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Bacterial glycosyltransferases (GT) often synthesize the same glycan linkages as mammalian GT; yet, they usually have very little sequence identity. Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity. Thus, bacterial GT can be utilized for the enzymatic synthesis of both bacterial and mammalian types of complex glycan structures. A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria. These epitopes include Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF or T) antigen, blood group O, A, and B, type 1 and 2 chains, Lewis antigens, sialylated and fucosylated structures, and polysialic acids. Many different approaches can be taken to investigate the substrate binding and catalytic mechanisms of GT, including crystal structure analyses, mutations, comparison of amino acid sequences, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Knowledge of the protein structures and functions helps to design GT for specific glycan synthesis and to develop inhibitors. The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus