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Association of household environment and prevalence of anemia among children under-5 in India.

Baranwal A, Baranwal A, Roy N - Front Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Data and methodology: The study is based on 52,868 children under the age of 5 years, included in India's National Family Health Survey-3.Children under 5 years of age generally stay inside their house and are more exposed to the household environment.Better resources are needed to educate the public and to increase awareness for improved hygiene, sanitation and housing facilities, health and nutrition, etc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Health Resource Hub, School of Habitat Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences , Mumbai , India.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study explores the association between the household environment and the prevalence of anemia among children under the age of 5 years in India. Data and methodology: The study is based on 52,868 children under the age of 5 years, included in India's National Family Health Survey-3. The outcome variable was the prevalence of anemia. To understand the role of environment in determining child anemia, step wise logistic regression models consisting of environmental, child, socio-economic, and media exposure variables were applied.

Results: The occurrence of childhood anemia was higher in the North Eastern and Eastern regions compared to all other regions of India. Unclean fuel use, poor toilet facilities, staying in non-concrete house, exposure to smoking were important variables determining the prevalence of anemia. Smoking, when it was controlled with only socio economic factors, showed lesser impact on anemia, but when it got adjusted with socio-economic, child, and media variables together it showed an important impact as it increased the risk of anemia.

Conclusion: Children under 5 years of age generally stay inside their house and are more exposed to the household environment. Thus, among these children there are multiple risk factors causing anemia along with the nutritional deficiencies. Better resources are needed to educate the public and to increase awareness for improved hygiene, sanitation and housing facilities, health and nutrition, etc. Along with a wider program to manage nutritional deficiency, anemia in children <5 years, there should be a holistic approach toward anemia control inculcating household environmental conditions and socio economic determinants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Conceptual framework for the study.
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Figure 1: Conceptual framework for the study.

Mentions: The data set used for this study was the NFHS-3 (2005–06). The NFHS is a large scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. Three rounds have been conducted since the first survey in 1992–1993. The survey provided state and national information for India on fertility, infant and child mortality, the practice of family planning, maternal and child health, reproductive health, nutrition, anemia, utilization, and quality of health and family planning services. Each successive round of the NFHS has had two specific goals: (a) to provide essential data on health and family welfare needed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) and other agencies for policy and program purposes, and (b) to provide information on important emerging health and family welfare issues. The MOHFW, Government of India, designated International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, as the nodal agency, responsible for providing coordination and technical guidance for the survey. IIPS collaborated with a number of Field Organizations (FO) for survey implementation. Each FO was responsible for conducting survey activities in one or more states covered by the NFHS. Technical assistance for the NFHS was provided mainly by ORC Macro (USA) and other organizations on specific issues. The funding for different rounds of NFHS was provided by USAID, DFID, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, UNFPA, and MOHFW, GOI. Information collected covered 52,868 children under the age of 5 years from a sample of 124,385 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years in all 29 states. (Children from ever married women included in the study.) Since anemia is a serious health problem in India, NFHS-3 undertook direct measurement of the hemoglobin levels of all children under age 5 years, women age 15–49 years, and men age 15–54 years. The prevalence of anemia among children was estimated by measuring the hemoglobin using the Hemo CueTM Hb 201+ analyzer. This point-of-care quantitative hemoglobin testing system uses a single drop of blood from a finger prick (or heel prick in the case of infants under 6 months old), drawn into a curette, and then inserted into a portable, battery-operated instrument. To understand the household environment, a number of questions from the household questionnaire were asked to the head of the household. Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework for the study.


Association of household environment and prevalence of anemia among children under-5 in India.

Baranwal A, Baranwal A, Roy N - Front Public Health (2014)

Conceptual framework for the study.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202784&req=5

Figure 1: Conceptual framework for the study.
Mentions: The data set used for this study was the NFHS-3 (2005–06). The NFHS is a large scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. Three rounds have been conducted since the first survey in 1992–1993. The survey provided state and national information for India on fertility, infant and child mortality, the practice of family planning, maternal and child health, reproductive health, nutrition, anemia, utilization, and quality of health and family planning services. Each successive round of the NFHS has had two specific goals: (a) to provide essential data on health and family welfare needed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) and other agencies for policy and program purposes, and (b) to provide information on important emerging health and family welfare issues. The MOHFW, Government of India, designated International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, as the nodal agency, responsible for providing coordination and technical guidance for the survey. IIPS collaborated with a number of Field Organizations (FO) for survey implementation. Each FO was responsible for conducting survey activities in one or more states covered by the NFHS. Technical assistance for the NFHS was provided mainly by ORC Macro (USA) and other organizations on specific issues. The funding for different rounds of NFHS was provided by USAID, DFID, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, UNFPA, and MOHFW, GOI. Information collected covered 52,868 children under the age of 5 years from a sample of 124,385 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years in all 29 states. (Children from ever married women included in the study.) Since anemia is a serious health problem in India, NFHS-3 undertook direct measurement of the hemoglobin levels of all children under age 5 years, women age 15–49 years, and men age 15–54 years. The prevalence of anemia among children was estimated by measuring the hemoglobin using the Hemo CueTM Hb 201+ analyzer. This point-of-care quantitative hemoglobin testing system uses a single drop of blood from a finger prick (or heel prick in the case of infants under 6 months old), drawn into a curette, and then inserted into a portable, battery-operated instrument. To understand the household environment, a number of questions from the household questionnaire were asked to the head of the household. Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework for the study.

Bottom Line: Data and methodology: The study is based on 52,868 children under the age of 5 years, included in India's National Family Health Survey-3.Children under 5 years of age generally stay inside their house and are more exposed to the household environment.Better resources are needed to educate the public and to increase awareness for improved hygiene, sanitation and housing facilities, health and nutrition, etc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Health Resource Hub, School of Habitat Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences , Mumbai , India.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study explores the association between the household environment and the prevalence of anemia among children under the age of 5 years in India. Data and methodology: The study is based on 52,868 children under the age of 5 years, included in India's National Family Health Survey-3. The outcome variable was the prevalence of anemia. To understand the role of environment in determining child anemia, step wise logistic regression models consisting of environmental, child, socio-economic, and media exposure variables were applied.

Results: The occurrence of childhood anemia was higher in the North Eastern and Eastern regions compared to all other regions of India. Unclean fuel use, poor toilet facilities, staying in non-concrete house, exposure to smoking were important variables determining the prevalence of anemia. Smoking, when it was controlled with only socio economic factors, showed lesser impact on anemia, but when it got adjusted with socio-economic, child, and media variables together it showed an important impact as it increased the risk of anemia.

Conclusion: Children under 5 years of age generally stay inside their house and are more exposed to the household environment. Thus, among these children there are multiple risk factors causing anemia along with the nutritional deficiencies. Better resources are needed to educate the public and to increase awareness for improved hygiene, sanitation and housing facilities, health and nutrition, etc. Along with a wider program to manage nutritional deficiency, anemia in children <5 years, there should be a holistic approach toward anemia control inculcating household environmental conditions and socio economic determinants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus