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Different neural systems contribute to semantic bias and conflict detection in the inclusion fallacy task.

Liang P, Goel V, Jia X, Li K - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: It was found that a left fronto-temporal system, along with a superior medial frontal system, was specifically activated in response to fallacious responses consistent with a semantic biasing of judgment explanation.A right fronto-parietal system was specifically recruited in response to detecting conflict associated with the heightened fallacy condition.These results are largely consistent with previous studies of reasoning fallacy and support a multiple systems model of reasoning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing , China ; Brain Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Brain Informatics , Beijing , China.

ABSTRACT
The inclusion fallacy is a phenomenon in which generalization from a specific premise category to a more general conclusion category is considered stronger than a generalization to a specific conclusion category nested within the more general set. Such inferences violate rational norms and are part of the reasoning fallacy literature that provides interesting tasks to explore cognitive and neural basis of reasoning. To explore the functional neuroanatomy of the inclusion fallacy, we used a 2 × 2 factorial design, with factors for quantification (explicit and implicit) and response (fallacious and non-fallacious). It was found that a left fronto-temporal system, along with a superior medial frontal system, was specifically activated in response to fallacious responses consistent with a semantic biasing of judgment explanation. A right fronto-parietal system was specifically recruited in response to detecting conflict associated with the heightened fallacy condition. These results are largely consistent with previous studies of reasoning fallacy and support a multiple systems model of reasoning.

No MeSH data available.


A statistical parametric map (SPM) rendered into standard stereotactic space. A comparison of fallacy trials versus non-fallacy trials (F_NF) results in activation in left inferior frontal gyrus/insula (MNI: −39, 15, 9; T = 4.81) (BA 45/13), left middle temporal gyrus (MNI: −66, −39, −6; T = 5.21) (BA 21/22), left medial frontal gyrus (MNI: −3, 36, 48; T = 4.60) (BA 8), and right superior frontal gyrus (MNI: 3, 33, 48; T = 5.23) (BA 8) [also see the main effect of (F–NF) in Table 2]. Condition specific parameter (beta) estimates show that the left fronto-temporal system and bilateral mesial frontal gyrus are specifically responding to fallacy trials in both implicit and explicit conditions. The error bars represent the SEM. The activations reported survived an uncorrected voxel-level intensity threshold of p < 0.001 with a minimum cluster size of 10 contiguous voxels, which corresponds to a corrected p < 0.05 (using the AlphaSim program as described in Section Materials and Methods).
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Figure 2: A statistical parametric map (SPM) rendered into standard stereotactic space. A comparison of fallacy trials versus non-fallacy trials (F_NF) results in activation in left inferior frontal gyrus/insula (MNI: −39, 15, 9; T = 4.81) (BA 45/13), left middle temporal gyrus (MNI: −66, −39, −6; T = 5.21) (BA 21/22), left medial frontal gyrus (MNI: −3, 36, 48; T = 4.60) (BA 8), and right superior frontal gyrus (MNI: 3, 33, 48; T = 5.23) (BA 8) [also see the main effect of (F–NF) in Table 2]. Condition specific parameter (beta) estimates show that the left fronto-temporal system and bilateral mesial frontal gyrus are specifically responding to fallacy trials in both implicit and explicit conditions. The error bars represent the SEM. The activations reported survived an uncorrected voxel-level intensity threshold of p < 0.001 with a minimum cluster size of 10 contiguous voxels, which corresponds to a corrected p < 0.05 (using the AlphaSim program as described in Section Materials and Methods).

Mentions: The main effect of response (Table 2), derived from comparisons of trials with fallacious and non-fallacious responses (F–NF), revealed activation of bilateral superior/medial frontal gyrus (BA 8), left inferior frontal gyrus/insula (BA45, 13), and left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, 22) in the fallacy trials (Table 2; Figure 2). The reverse comparison, of the main effect of response, non-fallacious versus fallacious trials (NF–F), revealed no significant activations.


Different neural systems contribute to semantic bias and conflict detection in the inclusion fallacy task.

Liang P, Goel V, Jia X, Li K - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

A statistical parametric map (SPM) rendered into standard stereotactic space. A comparison of fallacy trials versus non-fallacy trials (F_NF) results in activation in left inferior frontal gyrus/insula (MNI: −39, 15, 9; T = 4.81) (BA 45/13), left middle temporal gyrus (MNI: −66, −39, −6; T = 5.21) (BA 21/22), left medial frontal gyrus (MNI: −3, 36, 48; T = 4.60) (BA 8), and right superior frontal gyrus (MNI: 3, 33, 48; T = 5.23) (BA 8) [also see the main effect of (F–NF) in Table 2]. Condition specific parameter (beta) estimates show that the left fronto-temporal system and bilateral mesial frontal gyrus are specifically responding to fallacy trials in both implicit and explicit conditions. The error bars represent the SEM. The activations reported survived an uncorrected voxel-level intensity threshold of p < 0.001 with a minimum cluster size of 10 contiguous voxels, which corresponds to a corrected p < 0.05 (using the AlphaSim program as described in Section Materials and Methods).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202773&req=5

Figure 2: A statistical parametric map (SPM) rendered into standard stereotactic space. A comparison of fallacy trials versus non-fallacy trials (F_NF) results in activation in left inferior frontal gyrus/insula (MNI: −39, 15, 9; T = 4.81) (BA 45/13), left middle temporal gyrus (MNI: −66, −39, −6; T = 5.21) (BA 21/22), left medial frontal gyrus (MNI: −3, 36, 48; T = 4.60) (BA 8), and right superior frontal gyrus (MNI: 3, 33, 48; T = 5.23) (BA 8) [also see the main effect of (F–NF) in Table 2]. Condition specific parameter (beta) estimates show that the left fronto-temporal system and bilateral mesial frontal gyrus are specifically responding to fallacy trials in both implicit and explicit conditions. The error bars represent the SEM. The activations reported survived an uncorrected voxel-level intensity threshold of p < 0.001 with a minimum cluster size of 10 contiguous voxels, which corresponds to a corrected p < 0.05 (using the AlphaSim program as described in Section Materials and Methods).
Mentions: The main effect of response (Table 2), derived from comparisons of trials with fallacious and non-fallacious responses (F–NF), revealed activation of bilateral superior/medial frontal gyrus (BA 8), left inferior frontal gyrus/insula (BA45, 13), and left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, 22) in the fallacy trials (Table 2; Figure 2). The reverse comparison, of the main effect of response, non-fallacious versus fallacious trials (NF–F), revealed no significant activations.

Bottom Line: It was found that a left fronto-temporal system, along with a superior medial frontal system, was specifically activated in response to fallacious responses consistent with a semantic biasing of judgment explanation.A right fronto-parietal system was specifically recruited in response to detecting conflict associated with the heightened fallacy condition.These results are largely consistent with previous studies of reasoning fallacy and support a multiple systems model of reasoning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing , China ; Brain Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Brain Informatics , Beijing , China.

ABSTRACT
The inclusion fallacy is a phenomenon in which generalization from a specific premise category to a more general conclusion category is considered stronger than a generalization to a specific conclusion category nested within the more general set. Such inferences violate rational norms and are part of the reasoning fallacy literature that provides interesting tasks to explore cognitive and neural basis of reasoning. To explore the functional neuroanatomy of the inclusion fallacy, we used a 2 × 2 factorial design, with factors for quantification (explicit and implicit) and response (fallacious and non-fallacious). It was found that a left fronto-temporal system, along with a superior medial frontal system, was specifically activated in response to fallacious responses consistent with a semantic biasing of judgment explanation. A right fronto-parietal system was specifically recruited in response to detecting conflict associated with the heightened fallacy condition. These results are largely consistent with previous studies of reasoning fallacy and support a multiple systems model of reasoning.

No MeSH data available.