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Compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress.

Zechmann B - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants.The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol).Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Microscopy and Imaging, Baylor University , Waco, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression, and the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment-specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment-specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, tobacco mosaic virus). The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol). Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The ascorbate–glutathione cycle in plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) within the plant cell can be detoxified by ascorbate peroxidase (APX). In this reaction, the reduced form of ascorbate (Asc) is oxidized to monodehydroascorbate (MDHA). MDHA is then either reduced by monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) to Asc or, since very unstable, reacts to dehydroascorbate (DHA). DHA is reduced by dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) to Asc. In this reaction, the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) is oxidized to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSSG is then reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to GSH. The electron acceptor NADP is regenerated during the reduction of MDHA and GSSG by the respective enzymes. Asc and GSH are additional able to detoxify reactive oxygen species by direct chemical interaction. Thus, besides the total ascorbate and glutathione level their redox state (reduced vs. oxidized state) which depends on the activity of the described enzymes (gray boxes) is also very important for successful plant protection.
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Figure 1: The ascorbate–glutathione cycle in plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) within the plant cell can be detoxified by ascorbate peroxidase (APX). In this reaction, the reduced form of ascorbate (Asc) is oxidized to monodehydroascorbate (MDHA). MDHA is then either reduced by monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) to Asc or, since very unstable, reacts to dehydroascorbate (DHA). DHA is reduced by dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) to Asc. In this reaction, the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) is oxidized to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSSG is then reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to GSH. The electron acceptor NADP is regenerated during the reduction of MDHA and GSSG by the respective enzymes. Asc and GSH are additional able to detoxify reactive oxygen species by direct chemical interaction. Thus, besides the total ascorbate and glutathione level their redox state (reduced vs. oxidized state) which depends on the activity of the described enzymes (gray boxes) is also very important for successful plant protection.

Mentions: The subcellular distribution of glutathione in plants is of great importance as this multifunctional metabolite is essential for plant development and growth (Kocsy et al., 2013). It is the most important antioxidant in plants and is a key agent in plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), either directly through scavenging them or through the ascorbate–glutathione cycle (Figure 1). It is also involved in redox signaling, the modulation of gene expression and the regulation of enzymatic activities (extensively reviewed by Noctor, 2006; Foyer and Noctor, 2009, 2011; Noctor et al., 2012; Kocsy et al., 2013; Schmitt et al., 2014). Additionally, glutathione is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics, herbicides (Edwards et al., 2005; DeRidder and Goldsbrough, 2006; Cummins et al., 2011; Mohsenzadeh et al., 2011), heavy metals such as cadmium (Zawoznik et al., 2007; Ammar et al., 2008; DalCorso et al., 2008; Ducic et al., 2008; Nocito et al., 2008; Tan et al., 2010; Jozefczak et al., 2012; Koffler et al., 2014b), and protects proteins from oxidation by a process called glutathionylation (Dixon et al., 2005; Hurd et al., 2005a,b; Zaffagnini et al., 2012a,b). Therefore subcellular changes in glutathione contents especially during environmental stress situations provide insights into compartment-specific defense reactions and reflect the occurrence of compartment-specific oxidative stress. Such information can be used as a subcellular stress marker and can be very helpful to clarify the importance of the protective roles of glutathione during stress situations in plants on the cellular level.


Compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress.

Zechmann B - Front Plant Sci (2014)

The ascorbate–glutathione cycle in plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) within the plant cell can be detoxified by ascorbate peroxidase (APX). In this reaction, the reduced form of ascorbate (Asc) is oxidized to monodehydroascorbate (MDHA). MDHA is then either reduced by monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) to Asc or, since very unstable, reacts to dehydroascorbate (DHA). DHA is reduced by dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) to Asc. In this reaction, the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) is oxidized to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSSG is then reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to GSH. The electron acceptor NADP is regenerated during the reduction of MDHA and GSSG by the respective enzymes. Asc and GSH are additional able to detoxify reactive oxygen species by direct chemical interaction. Thus, besides the total ascorbate and glutathione level their redox state (reduced vs. oxidized state) which depends on the activity of the described enzymes (gray boxes) is also very important for successful plant protection.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202713&req=5

Figure 1: The ascorbate–glutathione cycle in plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) within the plant cell can be detoxified by ascorbate peroxidase (APX). In this reaction, the reduced form of ascorbate (Asc) is oxidized to monodehydroascorbate (MDHA). MDHA is then either reduced by monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) to Asc or, since very unstable, reacts to dehydroascorbate (DHA). DHA is reduced by dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) to Asc. In this reaction, the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) is oxidized to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSSG is then reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to GSH. The electron acceptor NADP is regenerated during the reduction of MDHA and GSSG by the respective enzymes. Asc and GSH are additional able to detoxify reactive oxygen species by direct chemical interaction. Thus, besides the total ascorbate and glutathione level their redox state (reduced vs. oxidized state) which depends on the activity of the described enzymes (gray boxes) is also very important for successful plant protection.
Mentions: The subcellular distribution of glutathione in plants is of great importance as this multifunctional metabolite is essential for plant development and growth (Kocsy et al., 2013). It is the most important antioxidant in plants and is a key agent in plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), either directly through scavenging them or through the ascorbate–glutathione cycle (Figure 1). It is also involved in redox signaling, the modulation of gene expression and the regulation of enzymatic activities (extensively reviewed by Noctor, 2006; Foyer and Noctor, 2009, 2011; Noctor et al., 2012; Kocsy et al., 2013; Schmitt et al., 2014). Additionally, glutathione is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics, herbicides (Edwards et al., 2005; DeRidder and Goldsbrough, 2006; Cummins et al., 2011; Mohsenzadeh et al., 2011), heavy metals such as cadmium (Zawoznik et al., 2007; Ammar et al., 2008; DalCorso et al., 2008; Ducic et al., 2008; Nocito et al., 2008; Tan et al., 2010; Jozefczak et al., 2012; Koffler et al., 2014b), and protects proteins from oxidation by a process called glutathionylation (Dixon et al., 2005; Hurd et al., 2005a,b; Zaffagnini et al., 2012a,b). Therefore subcellular changes in glutathione contents especially during environmental stress situations provide insights into compartment-specific defense reactions and reflect the occurrence of compartment-specific oxidative stress. Such information can be used as a subcellular stress marker and can be very helpful to clarify the importance of the protective roles of glutathione during stress situations in plants on the cellular level.

Bottom Line: Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants.The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol).Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Microscopy and Imaging, Baylor University , Waco, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression, and the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment-specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment-specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, tobacco mosaic virus). The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol). Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus