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Language choice in bimodal bilingual development.

Lillo-Martin D, de Quadros RM, Chen Pichler D, Fieldsteel Z - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors.However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant community language.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Linguistics, University of Connecticut Storrs, CT, USA ; Haskins Laboratories New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children. Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending-expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously-an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children's language choices. This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult. Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant community language.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Language choice over time: EDU. Proportion of speech (blue dotted), sign (green dashed), and bimodal (red solid) utterances produced: (A) child speech target; (B) child sign target; (C) interlocutor(s) speech target; (D) interlocutor(s) sign target (Note: Intervals along x-axis are not regular).
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Figure 7: Language choice over time: EDU. Proportion of speech (blue dotted), sign (green dashed), and bimodal (red solid) utterances produced: (A) child speech target; (B) child sign target; (C) interlocutor(s) speech target; (D) interlocutor(s) sign target (Note: Intervals along x-axis are not regular).

Mentions: EDU's pattern of language selection, shown in Figure 7, showed little change over time in Speech sessions. His use of speech was at ceiling in these sessions, despite the notably lower rate of speech and correspondingly higher rate of bimodal and sign productions by his interlocutors. In Sign sessions, EDU started with a high proportion use of speech, but this was moderated over time, moving toward higher use of Sign but relatively low use of bimodal productions. The interlocutors in his Sign sessions—his Deaf mother and father—used sign almost exclusively on camera, but we observed that his mother used speech/bimodal productions with him and with others at other times. Overall, EDU showed a strong speech bias in the observations presented here.


Language choice in bimodal bilingual development.

Lillo-Martin D, de Quadros RM, Chen Pichler D, Fieldsteel Z - Front Psychol (2014)

Language choice over time: EDU. Proportion of speech (blue dotted), sign (green dashed), and bimodal (red solid) utterances produced: (A) child speech target; (B) child sign target; (C) interlocutor(s) speech target; (D) interlocutor(s) sign target (Note: Intervals along x-axis are not regular).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202712&req=5

Figure 7: Language choice over time: EDU. Proportion of speech (blue dotted), sign (green dashed), and bimodal (red solid) utterances produced: (A) child speech target; (B) child sign target; (C) interlocutor(s) speech target; (D) interlocutor(s) sign target (Note: Intervals along x-axis are not regular).
Mentions: EDU's pattern of language selection, shown in Figure 7, showed little change over time in Speech sessions. His use of speech was at ceiling in these sessions, despite the notably lower rate of speech and correspondingly higher rate of bimodal and sign productions by his interlocutors. In Sign sessions, EDU started with a high proportion use of speech, but this was moderated over time, moving toward higher use of Sign but relatively low use of bimodal productions. The interlocutors in his Sign sessions—his Deaf mother and father—used sign almost exclusively on camera, but we observed that his mother used speech/bimodal productions with him and with others at other times. Overall, EDU showed a strong speech bias in the observations presented here.

Bottom Line: Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors.However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant community language.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Linguistics, University of Connecticut Storrs, CT, USA ; Haskins Laboratories New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children. Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending-expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously-an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children's language choices. This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult. Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant community language.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus