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Small and Long Regulatory RNAs in the Immune System and Immune Diseases.

Stachurska A, Zorro MM, van der Sijde MR, Withoff S - Front Immunol (2014)

Bottom Line: Until recently, it was thought that the dysregulation was governed by changes in the binding or activity of a class of proteins called transcription factors.However, the discovery of micro-RNAs and recent descriptions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have given enormous momentum to a whole new field of biology: the regulatory RNAs.In this review, we describe these two classes of regulatory RNAs and summarize what is known about how they regulate aspects of the adaptive and innate immune systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen , Groningen , Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cellular differentiation is regulated on the level of gene expression, and it is known that dysregulation of gene expression can lead to deficiencies in differentiation that contribute to a variety of diseases, particularly of the immune system. Until recently, it was thought that the dysregulation was governed by changes in the binding or activity of a class of proteins called transcription factors. However, the discovery of micro-RNAs and recent descriptions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have given enormous momentum to a whole new field of biology: the regulatory RNAs. In this review, we describe these two classes of regulatory RNAs and summarize what is known about how they regulate aspects of the adaptive and innate immune systems. Finally, we describe what is known about the involvement of micro-RNAs and lncRNAs in three different autoimmune diseases (celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Molecular functions of lncRNAs. (A) LncRNAs can act as signaling molecules, affecting the expression of genes in response to a stimulus. (B) LncRNAs can divert transcription factors or other proteins away from the DNA. (C) Other lncRNAs can recruit proteins, bringing them closer to target genes. (D) As scaffolds, lncRNAs can bring together multiple proteins to form complexes.
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Figure 3: Molecular functions of lncRNAs. (A) LncRNAs can act as signaling molecules, affecting the expression of genes in response to a stimulus. (B) LncRNAs can divert transcription factors or other proteins away from the DNA. (C) Other lncRNAs can recruit proteins, bringing them closer to target genes. (D) As scaffolds, lncRNAs can bring together multiple proteins to form complexes.

Mentions: Multiple layers of gene expression controlled by transcription factors, miRNAs, and lncRNAs. (A) Protein-coding genes are transcribed into mRNA, which subsequently are translated into proteins. These proteins can function as the classical transcription factors. (B) There is a second class of RNAs that is not translated into protein but rather is regulating the expression of other transcripts. The third class of transcripts described in this review (C) is the long non-coding RNAs that can regulate gene expression as well, although other functions for these transcripts have been described (see Figure 3). It is becoming clear that there is interaction within each class, but also between these three classes, which can converge on transcriptional outcome (see text for details).


Small and Long Regulatory RNAs in the Immune System and Immune Diseases.

Stachurska A, Zorro MM, van der Sijde MR, Withoff S - Front Immunol (2014)

Molecular functions of lncRNAs. (A) LncRNAs can act as signaling molecules, affecting the expression of genes in response to a stimulus. (B) LncRNAs can divert transcription factors or other proteins away from the DNA. (C) Other lncRNAs can recruit proteins, bringing them closer to target genes. (D) As scaffolds, lncRNAs can bring together multiple proteins to form complexes.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202709&req=5

Figure 3: Molecular functions of lncRNAs. (A) LncRNAs can act as signaling molecules, affecting the expression of genes in response to a stimulus. (B) LncRNAs can divert transcription factors or other proteins away from the DNA. (C) Other lncRNAs can recruit proteins, bringing them closer to target genes. (D) As scaffolds, lncRNAs can bring together multiple proteins to form complexes.
Mentions: Multiple layers of gene expression controlled by transcription factors, miRNAs, and lncRNAs. (A) Protein-coding genes are transcribed into mRNA, which subsequently are translated into proteins. These proteins can function as the classical transcription factors. (B) There is a second class of RNAs that is not translated into protein but rather is regulating the expression of other transcripts. The third class of transcripts described in this review (C) is the long non-coding RNAs that can regulate gene expression as well, although other functions for these transcripts have been described (see Figure 3). It is becoming clear that there is interaction within each class, but also between these three classes, which can converge on transcriptional outcome (see text for details).

Bottom Line: Until recently, it was thought that the dysregulation was governed by changes in the binding or activity of a class of proteins called transcription factors.However, the discovery of micro-RNAs and recent descriptions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have given enormous momentum to a whole new field of biology: the regulatory RNAs.In this review, we describe these two classes of regulatory RNAs and summarize what is known about how they regulate aspects of the adaptive and innate immune systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen , Groningen , Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Cellular differentiation is regulated on the level of gene expression, and it is known that dysregulation of gene expression can lead to deficiencies in differentiation that contribute to a variety of diseases, particularly of the immune system. Until recently, it was thought that the dysregulation was governed by changes in the binding or activity of a class of proteins called transcription factors. However, the discovery of micro-RNAs and recent descriptions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have given enormous momentum to a whole new field of biology: the regulatory RNAs. In this review, we describe these two classes of regulatory RNAs and summarize what is known about how they regulate aspects of the adaptive and innate immune systems. Finally, we describe what is known about the involvement of micro-RNAs and lncRNAs in three different autoimmune diseases (celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus