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A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

von Reumont BM, Campbell LI, Richter S, Hering L, Sykes D, Hetmank J, Jenner RA, Bleidorn C - Genome Biol Evol (2014)

Bottom Line: These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins.This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore.Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom bmvr@arcor.de r.jenner@nhm.ac.uk bleidorn@uni-leipzig.de.

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Multiple sequence alignment of ShKT toxin domains generated by MAFFT-L-INS-i (Katoh and Standley 2013). Conserved residues are highlighted. Cnidarian sequences are highlighted in purple, Glycera sequences in orange, squamates in blue, and nonvenomous taxa are indicated by stars. See supplementary figure S2, Supplementary Material online, for an overview of the different domain arrangement patterns found in ShKT transcripts.
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evu190-F6: Multiple sequence alignment of ShKT toxin domains generated by MAFFT-L-INS-i (Katoh and Standley 2013). Conserved residues are highlighted. Cnidarian sequences are highlighted in purple, Glycera sequences in orange, squamates in blue, and nonvenomous taxa are indicated by stars. See supplementary figure S2, Supplementary Material online, for an overview of the different domain arrangement patterns found in ShKT transcripts.

Mentions: The Glycera ShKT domain transcripts contain the six conserved cysteine residues that are characteristic for this domain (fig. 6). The transcripts show three basic domain arrangements: Metalloproteinase M12 + ShKT, SUEL-like Lectin +ShKT, and CAP + ShKT (see supplementary fig. S2, Supplementary Material online). However, within and between these three basic types the transcripts vary widely in the presence of putative cleavage sites, signal peptides, transmembrane regions, tandem repeats of ShKT domain variants, and the presence of additional domain types.Fig. 6.—


A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

von Reumont BM, Campbell LI, Richter S, Hering L, Sykes D, Hetmank J, Jenner RA, Bleidorn C - Genome Biol Evol (2014)

Multiple sequence alignment of ShKT toxin domains generated by MAFFT-L-INS-i (Katoh and Standley 2013). Conserved residues are highlighted. Cnidarian sequences are highlighted in purple, Glycera sequences in orange, squamates in blue, and nonvenomous taxa are indicated by stars. See supplementary figure S2, Supplementary Material online, for an overview of the different domain arrangement patterns found in ShKT transcripts.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202326&req=5

evu190-F6: Multiple sequence alignment of ShKT toxin domains generated by MAFFT-L-INS-i (Katoh and Standley 2013). Conserved residues are highlighted. Cnidarian sequences are highlighted in purple, Glycera sequences in orange, squamates in blue, and nonvenomous taxa are indicated by stars. See supplementary figure S2, Supplementary Material online, for an overview of the different domain arrangement patterns found in ShKT transcripts.
Mentions: The Glycera ShKT domain transcripts contain the six conserved cysteine residues that are characteristic for this domain (fig. 6). The transcripts show three basic domain arrangements: Metalloproteinase M12 + ShKT, SUEL-like Lectin +ShKT, and CAP + ShKT (see supplementary fig. S2, Supplementary Material online). However, within and between these three basic types the transcripts vary widely in the presence of putative cleavage sites, signal peptides, transmembrane regions, tandem repeats of ShKT domain variants, and the presence of additional domain types.Fig. 6.—

Bottom Line: These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins.This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore.Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom bmvr@arcor.de r.jenner@nhm.ac.uk bleidorn@uni-leipzig.de.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus