A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.
Bottom Line: These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins.This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore.Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands.
Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The transcriptomes of bloodworm venom glands reveal an unexpectedly complex cocktail of transcripts coding for putative venom protein precursors (fig. 2). The most deeply sequenced library (G. dibranchiata) expresses the greatest diversity of putative venom toxin transcripts, representing 20 toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as 12 putative toxins that are possibly unique for bloodworms (see fig. 2 and supplementary tables S1 and S2, Supplementary Material online). For convenience the identifiable putative Glycera toxins are classified into five functional categories: 1) Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins: Actinoporin-like toxin, stonustoxin (SNTX)-like toxin, and sphingomyelinase; 2) neurotoxins: ShKT domain neurotoxin, gigantoxin-like neurotoxin, and turripeptide-like neurotoxin; 3) protease inhibitors: Cystatin, Kazal domain protease inhibitor, Kunitz domain protease inhibitor, lipocalin, and serpin; 4) other enzymes: C-type lectin, chitinase, hyaluronidase, phospholipases, peptidase S1, peptidase S10, and metalloproteinase M12; and 5) CAP domain proteins.Fig. 2.—
Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com.