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A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

von Reumont BM, Campbell LI, Richter S, Hering L, Sykes D, Hetmank J, Jenner RA, Bleidorn C - Genome Biol Evol (2014)

Bottom Line: These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins.This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore.Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom bmvr@arcor.de r.jenner@nhm.ac.uk bleidorn@uni-leipzig.de.

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Transcriptomic profile of toxin genes expressed in the venom glands of Glycera dibranchiata. (A) Contig diversity for the different toxins. (B) Abundance of sequence reads for the different toxins. Relative contig diversity and relative abundance of reads are expressed as percentages followed by the numbers of contigs and reads in parentheses. See supplementary figure S1, Supplementary Material online, for the transcriptomic profiles of G. fallax and G. tridactyla.
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evu190-F2: Transcriptomic profile of toxin genes expressed in the venom glands of Glycera dibranchiata. (A) Contig diversity for the different toxins. (B) Abundance of sequence reads for the different toxins. Relative contig diversity and relative abundance of reads are expressed as percentages followed by the numbers of contigs and reads in parentheses. See supplementary figure S1, Supplementary Material online, for the transcriptomic profiles of G. fallax and G. tridactyla.

Mentions: The transcriptomes of bloodworm venom glands reveal an unexpectedly complex cocktail of transcripts coding for putative venom protein precursors (fig. 2). The most deeply sequenced library (G. dibranchiata) expresses the greatest diversity of putative venom toxin transcripts, representing 20 toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as 12 putative toxins that are possibly unique for bloodworms (see fig. 2 and supplementary tables S1 and S2, Supplementary Material online). For convenience the identifiable putative Glycera toxins are classified into five functional categories: 1) Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins: Actinoporin-like toxin, stonustoxin (SNTX)-like toxin, and sphingomyelinase; 2) neurotoxins: ShKT domain neurotoxin, gigantoxin-like neurotoxin, and turripeptide-like neurotoxin; 3) protease inhibitors: Cystatin, Kazal domain protease inhibitor, Kunitz domain protease inhibitor, lipocalin, and serpin; 4) other enzymes: C-type lectin, chitinase, hyaluronidase, phospholipases, peptidase S1, peptidase S10, and metalloproteinase M12; and 5) CAP domain proteins.Fig. 2.—


A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

von Reumont BM, Campbell LI, Richter S, Hering L, Sykes D, Hetmank J, Jenner RA, Bleidorn C - Genome Biol Evol (2014)

Transcriptomic profile of toxin genes expressed in the venom glands of Glycera dibranchiata. (A) Contig diversity for the different toxins. (B) Abundance of sequence reads for the different toxins. Relative contig diversity and relative abundance of reads are expressed as percentages followed by the numbers of contigs and reads in parentheses. See supplementary figure S1, Supplementary Material online, for the transcriptomic profiles of G. fallax and G. tridactyla.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202326&req=5

evu190-F2: Transcriptomic profile of toxin genes expressed in the venom glands of Glycera dibranchiata. (A) Contig diversity for the different toxins. (B) Abundance of sequence reads for the different toxins. Relative contig diversity and relative abundance of reads are expressed as percentages followed by the numbers of contigs and reads in parentheses. See supplementary figure S1, Supplementary Material online, for the transcriptomic profiles of G. fallax and G. tridactyla.
Mentions: The transcriptomes of bloodworm venom glands reveal an unexpectedly complex cocktail of transcripts coding for putative venom protein precursors (fig. 2). The most deeply sequenced library (G. dibranchiata) expresses the greatest diversity of putative venom toxin transcripts, representing 20 toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as 12 putative toxins that are possibly unique for bloodworms (see fig. 2 and supplementary tables S1 and S2, Supplementary Material online). For convenience the identifiable putative Glycera toxins are classified into five functional categories: 1) Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins: Actinoporin-like toxin, stonustoxin (SNTX)-like toxin, and sphingomyelinase; 2) neurotoxins: ShKT domain neurotoxin, gigantoxin-like neurotoxin, and turripeptide-like neurotoxin; 3) protease inhibitors: Cystatin, Kazal domain protease inhibitor, Kunitz domain protease inhibitor, lipocalin, and serpin; 4) other enzymes: C-type lectin, chitinase, hyaluronidase, phospholipases, peptidase S1, peptidase S10, and metalloproteinase M12; and 5) CAP domain proteins.Fig. 2.—

Bottom Line: These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins.This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore.Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom bmvr@arcor.de r.jenner@nhm.ac.uk bleidorn@uni-leipzig.de.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus