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Characterization of change in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in India, using landsat satellite data.

Mabwoga SO, Thukral AK - Springerplus (2014)

Bottom Line: Images were classified into five land cover classes (1) Waterbody, (2) Wetland I, (3) Wetland II, (4) Barren land and (5) Agricultural land.Overall, the wetland shrunk by 13% from 1989 to 2010, with the north-eastern side experiencing maximum shrinkage.The wetland needs immediate reclamation to check it from further shrinkage so as to save its biodiversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, 143 005 Punjab India ; School of Tourism and Natural Resources Management, Department of Environment, Forestry and Agriculture, Maasai Mara University, P.O. Box 861-20500, Narok, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
The increasing population in the developing countries has rendered wetlands vulnerable to land use changes. Remote sensing offers a rapid and efficient means of data acquisition of ecosystems in time and space. The present study was undertaken to identify changes in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in the state of Punjab, India; and identify causal factors, as well as vulnerable areas threatened from the land cover changes. Unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data of 16-10-1989, 22-10-2000 and 26-10-2010. Images were classified into five land cover classes (1) Waterbody, (2) Wetland I, (3) Wetland II, (4) Barren land and (5) Agricultural land. Land cover change is characterized mainly by a decrease in the wetland area, as indicated by decrease in wetland vegetation and an increase in non-wetland areas, characterized by increasing agricultural and barren land areas. Overall, the wetland shrunk by 13% from 1989 to 2010, with the north-eastern side experiencing maximum shrinkage. The wetland needs immediate reclamation to check it from further shrinkage so as to save its biodiversity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in non-wetland classes for the Harike wetland. a. Changes in non-wetland classes; b. overall change in the non-wetland classes between 1989 and 2010.
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Fig4: Changes in non-wetland classes for the Harike wetland. a. Changes in non-wetland classes; b. overall change in the non-wetland classes between 1989 and 2010.

Mentions: To examine how the wetland changed during the study period, these classes were combined and the results revealed (Figure 3b) that the wetland classes decreased from 82% (7154 ha) in 1989 to 71% (6195 ha) in 2000 and gradually to 69% (6020 ha) in 2010 indicating that the wetland area is shrinking. Thirteen percent of the wetland area was lost between 1989 and 2010. Barren land and Agricultural land were non-wetland classes and showed an upward trend with a combined area of 18% (1585 ha) in 1989, increasing to 29% (2544 ha) in 2000, and subsequently to 31% (2718 ha) in 2010 (Table 6 and Figure 4a and b). The trend in changes during the 21 year period of the study in wetland area between the two categories of classes is shown in Figure 5. Wetland showed a declining trend as opposed to the non-wetland.Table 6


Characterization of change in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in India, using landsat satellite data.

Mabwoga SO, Thukral AK - Springerplus (2014)

Changes in non-wetland classes for the Harike wetland. a. Changes in non-wetland classes; b. overall change in the non-wetland classes between 1989 and 2010.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4201658&req=5

Fig4: Changes in non-wetland classes for the Harike wetland. a. Changes in non-wetland classes; b. overall change in the non-wetland classes between 1989 and 2010.
Mentions: To examine how the wetland changed during the study period, these classes were combined and the results revealed (Figure 3b) that the wetland classes decreased from 82% (7154 ha) in 1989 to 71% (6195 ha) in 2000 and gradually to 69% (6020 ha) in 2010 indicating that the wetland area is shrinking. Thirteen percent of the wetland area was lost between 1989 and 2010. Barren land and Agricultural land were non-wetland classes and showed an upward trend with a combined area of 18% (1585 ha) in 1989, increasing to 29% (2544 ha) in 2000, and subsequently to 31% (2718 ha) in 2010 (Table 6 and Figure 4a and b). The trend in changes during the 21 year period of the study in wetland area between the two categories of classes is shown in Figure 5. Wetland showed a declining trend as opposed to the non-wetland.Table 6

Bottom Line: Images were classified into five land cover classes (1) Waterbody, (2) Wetland I, (3) Wetland II, (4) Barren land and (5) Agricultural land.Overall, the wetland shrunk by 13% from 1989 to 2010, with the north-eastern side experiencing maximum shrinkage.The wetland needs immediate reclamation to check it from further shrinkage so as to save its biodiversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, 143 005 Punjab India ; School of Tourism and Natural Resources Management, Department of Environment, Forestry and Agriculture, Maasai Mara University, P.O. Box 861-20500, Narok, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
The increasing population in the developing countries has rendered wetlands vulnerable to land use changes. Remote sensing offers a rapid and efficient means of data acquisition of ecosystems in time and space. The present study was undertaken to identify changes in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in the state of Punjab, India; and identify causal factors, as well as vulnerable areas threatened from the land cover changes. Unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data of 16-10-1989, 22-10-2000 and 26-10-2010. Images were classified into five land cover classes (1) Waterbody, (2) Wetland I, (3) Wetland II, (4) Barren land and (5) Agricultural land. Land cover change is characterized mainly by a decrease in the wetland area, as indicated by decrease in wetland vegetation and an increase in non-wetland areas, characterized by increasing agricultural and barren land areas. Overall, the wetland shrunk by 13% from 1989 to 2010, with the north-eastern side experiencing maximum shrinkage. The wetland needs immediate reclamation to check it from further shrinkage so as to save its biodiversity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus