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Soil temperature determines the reaction of olive cultivars to Verticillium dahliae pathotypes.

Calderón R, Lucena C, Trapero-Casas JL, Zarco-Tejada PJ, Navas-Cortés JA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Arbequina.The relationship between stress-related parameters and disease severity determined by multinomial logistic regression and classification trees was able to detect the effects of V. dahliae infection and colonization on water flow that eventually cause water stress.These results provide a better understanding of the differential geographic distribution of V. dahliae pathotypes and to assess the potential effect of climate change on Verticillium wilt development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Apartado 4084, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, Córdoba, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Development of Verticillium wilt in olive, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, can be influenced by biotic and environmental factors. In this study we modeled i) the combined effects of biotic factors (i.e., pathotype virulence and cultivar susceptibility) and abiotic factors (i.e., soil temperature) on disease development and ii) the relationship between disease severity and several remote sensing parameters and plant stress indicators.

Methodology: Plants of Arbequina and Picual olive cultivars inoculated with isolates of defoliating and non-defoliating V. dahliae pathotypes were grown in soil tanks with a range of soil temperatures from 16 to 32°C. Disease progression was correlated with plant stress parameters (i.e., leaf temperature, steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, chlorophyll content, and ethylene production) and plant growth-related parameters (i.e., canopy length and dry weight).

Findings: Disease development in plants infected with the defoliating pathotype was faster and more severe in Picual. Models estimated that infection with the defoliating pathotype was promoted by soil temperatures in a range of 16 to 24°C in cv. Picual and of 20 to 24°C in cv. Arbequina. In the non-defoliating pathotype, soil temperatures ranging from 16 to 20°C were estimated to be most favorable for infection. The relationship between stress-related parameters and disease severity determined by multinomial logistic regression and classification trees was able to detect the effects of V. dahliae infection and colonization on water flow that eventually cause water stress.

Conclusions: Chlorophyll content, steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf temperature were the best indicators for Verticillium wilt detection at early stages of disease development, while ethylene production and photochemical reflectance index were indicators for disease detection at advanced stages. These results provide a better understanding of the differential geographic distribution of V. dahliae pathotypes and to assess the potential effect of climate change on Verticillium wilt development.

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Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature.Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature in olive cvs. Arbequina (Arb) (left panels) and Picual (Pic) (right panels) grown in sterilized soil (control) or in soil infested with the defoliating (D) or the non-defoliating (ND) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. A. Relative rate of canopy growth; B. Dry weight of the canopy. Each point represents the mean of data from two repeated experiments, each comprising six pots with one plant per pot, at the end of the experiments. Vertical bars represent the standard error of the mean. Lines represent the predicted model calculated with a Type I power exponential function.
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pone-0110664-g005: Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature.Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature in olive cvs. Arbequina (Arb) (left panels) and Picual (Pic) (right panels) grown in sterilized soil (control) or in soil infested with the defoliating (D) or the non-defoliating (ND) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. A. Relative rate of canopy growth; B. Dry weight of the canopy. Each point represents the mean of data from two repeated experiments, each comprising six pots with one plant per pot, at the end of the experiments. Vertical bars represent the standard error of the mean. Lines represent the predicted model calculated with a Type I power exponential function.

Mentions: Plant growth, estimated by the relative rate of canopy growth and dry canopy weight, was also strongly affected by the experimental treatments. The lowest values for both growth measures were observed in plants infected with the D pathotype of V. dahliae at a soil temperature ranging from 16 to 24°C. At these soil temperatures, based on measurements of canopy height at the beginning and the end of the experiments, Arbequina plants exhibited a 1.5 to 1.7 rate of canopy growth. The rate of canopy growth of Picual plants was 1.3 to 1.4 times higher than on Arbequina plants (Fig. 5A, C). At the same soil temperature levels, canopy dry weight values exhibited few differences, ranging from 2.4 to 2.8 g in cv. Arbequina and from 2.3 to 2.5 g in Picual plants; this parameter was about 75 to 82% lower than in non-infected control plants (Fig. 5B, D). At a soil temperature of 28°C, both growth parameters increased by 3.4 cm/day and 3.4 g/day in cv. Arbequina, and by 2.4 cm/day and 3.4 g/day in cv. Picual. At 32°C, maximum growth values were observed in all treatments and both cultivars. Plant growth of Picual plants infected with the ND pathotype was about 24 to 36% lower than that of control plants at a soil temperature of 16 and 20°C but minor differences were observed when plants grew at a soil temperature range of 24 to 32°C. In control treatments, plant growth tended to increase with the increase in soil temperatures but did so at a lower rate than in infected plants. Specifically, soil temperature reduced plant growth only in the lower soil temperature range of 16 and 20°C, and optimal maximum growth took place at 24 to 32°C (Fig. 5).


Soil temperature determines the reaction of olive cultivars to Verticillium dahliae pathotypes.

Calderón R, Lucena C, Trapero-Casas JL, Zarco-Tejada PJ, Navas-Cortés JA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature.Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature in olive cvs. Arbequina (Arb) (left panels) and Picual (Pic) (right panels) grown in sterilized soil (control) or in soil infested with the defoliating (D) or the non-defoliating (ND) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. A. Relative rate of canopy growth; B. Dry weight of the canopy. Each point represents the mean of data from two repeated experiments, each comprising six pots with one plant per pot, at the end of the experiments. Vertical bars represent the standard error of the mean. Lines represent the predicted model calculated with a Type I power exponential function.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4201566&req=5

pone-0110664-g005: Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature.Relationship between plant growth-related parameters and soil temperature in olive cvs. Arbequina (Arb) (left panels) and Picual (Pic) (right panels) grown in sterilized soil (control) or in soil infested with the defoliating (D) or the non-defoliating (ND) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. A. Relative rate of canopy growth; B. Dry weight of the canopy. Each point represents the mean of data from two repeated experiments, each comprising six pots with one plant per pot, at the end of the experiments. Vertical bars represent the standard error of the mean. Lines represent the predicted model calculated with a Type I power exponential function.
Mentions: Plant growth, estimated by the relative rate of canopy growth and dry canopy weight, was also strongly affected by the experimental treatments. The lowest values for both growth measures were observed in plants infected with the D pathotype of V. dahliae at a soil temperature ranging from 16 to 24°C. At these soil temperatures, based on measurements of canopy height at the beginning and the end of the experiments, Arbequina plants exhibited a 1.5 to 1.7 rate of canopy growth. The rate of canopy growth of Picual plants was 1.3 to 1.4 times higher than on Arbequina plants (Fig. 5A, C). At the same soil temperature levels, canopy dry weight values exhibited few differences, ranging from 2.4 to 2.8 g in cv. Arbequina and from 2.3 to 2.5 g in Picual plants; this parameter was about 75 to 82% lower than in non-infected control plants (Fig. 5B, D). At a soil temperature of 28°C, both growth parameters increased by 3.4 cm/day and 3.4 g/day in cv. Arbequina, and by 2.4 cm/day and 3.4 g/day in cv. Picual. At 32°C, maximum growth values were observed in all treatments and both cultivars. Plant growth of Picual plants infected with the ND pathotype was about 24 to 36% lower than that of control plants at a soil temperature of 16 and 20°C but minor differences were observed when plants grew at a soil temperature range of 24 to 32°C. In control treatments, plant growth tended to increase with the increase in soil temperatures but did so at a lower rate than in infected plants. Specifically, soil temperature reduced plant growth only in the lower soil temperature range of 16 and 20°C, and optimal maximum growth took place at 24 to 32°C (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: Arbequina.The relationship between stress-related parameters and disease severity determined by multinomial logistic regression and classification trees was able to detect the effects of V. dahliae infection and colonization on water flow that eventually cause water stress.These results provide a better understanding of the differential geographic distribution of V. dahliae pathotypes and to assess the potential effect of climate change on Verticillium wilt development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Apartado 4084, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, Córdoba, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Development of Verticillium wilt in olive, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, can be influenced by biotic and environmental factors. In this study we modeled i) the combined effects of biotic factors (i.e., pathotype virulence and cultivar susceptibility) and abiotic factors (i.e., soil temperature) on disease development and ii) the relationship between disease severity and several remote sensing parameters and plant stress indicators.

Methodology: Plants of Arbequina and Picual olive cultivars inoculated with isolates of defoliating and non-defoliating V. dahliae pathotypes were grown in soil tanks with a range of soil temperatures from 16 to 32°C. Disease progression was correlated with plant stress parameters (i.e., leaf temperature, steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, chlorophyll content, and ethylene production) and plant growth-related parameters (i.e., canopy length and dry weight).

Findings: Disease development in plants infected with the defoliating pathotype was faster and more severe in Picual. Models estimated that infection with the defoliating pathotype was promoted by soil temperatures in a range of 16 to 24°C in cv. Picual and of 20 to 24°C in cv. Arbequina. In the non-defoliating pathotype, soil temperatures ranging from 16 to 20°C were estimated to be most favorable for infection. The relationship between stress-related parameters and disease severity determined by multinomial logistic regression and classification trees was able to detect the effects of V. dahliae infection and colonization on water flow that eventually cause water stress.

Conclusions: Chlorophyll content, steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf temperature were the best indicators for Verticillium wilt detection at early stages of disease development, while ethylene production and photochemical reflectance index were indicators for disease detection at advanced stages. These results provide a better understanding of the differential geographic distribution of V. dahliae pathotypes and to assess the potential effect of climate change on Verticillium wilt development.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus