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Anti-inflammatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris might be related to its linear (1→3)-β-D-glucan.

Smiderle FR, Baggio CH, Borato DG, Santana-Filho AP, Sassaki GL, Iacomini M, Van Griensven LJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The aqueous (CW, HW) extracts stimulated the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 by THP-1 macrophages, while the alkaline (K5) extract did not show any effect.In vivo, β-(1→3)-D-glucan also inhibited significantly the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response, and, in addition, it reduced the migration of total leukocytes but not the neutrophils induced by LPS.In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, an entomopathogenic fungus, is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines. Studies related to its pharmacological properties suggest that this mushroom can exert interesting biological activities. Aqueous (CW and HW) and alkaline (K5) extracts containing polysaccharides were prepared from this mushroom, and a β-D-glucan was purified. This polymer was analysed by GC-MS and NMR spectrometry, showing a linear chain composed of β-D-Glcp (1→3)-linked. The six main signals in the 13C-NMR spectrum were assigned by comparison to reported data. The aqueous (CW, HW) extracts stimulated the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 by THP-1 macrophages, while the alkaline (K5) extract did not show any effect. However, when the extracts were added to the cells in the presence of LPS, K5 showed the highest inhibition of the pro-inflammatory genes expression. This inhibitory effect was also observed for the purified β-(1→3)-D-glucan, that seems to be the most potent anti-inflammatory compound present in the polysaccharide extracts of C. militaris. In vivo, β-(1→3)-D-glucan also inhibited significantly the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response, and, in addition, it reduced the migration of total leukocytes but not the neutrophils induced by LPS. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan.

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Effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan on neurogenic (A) and inflammatory phase (B) of nociception induced by formalin in mice. Footnote:Mice received vehicle (saline plus 5% Me2SO, 10 mL/kg, i.p.) or β-(1→3)-D-glucan (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before formalin administration. Statistical analyses were performed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman–Keuls’ test. The results represent the mean ± SEM of 10–12 animals. *p<0.05 versus control group.
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pone-0110266-g007: Effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan on neurogenic (A) and inflammatory phase (B) of nociception induced by formalin in mice. Footnote:Mice received vehicle (saline plus 5% Me2SO, 10 mL/kg, i.p.) or β-(1→3)-D-glucan (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before formalin administration. Statistical analyses were performed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman–Keuls’ test. The results represent the mean ± SEM of 10–12 animals. *p<0.05 versus control group.

Mentions: The results depicted in Figures 7A and 7B show that intraperitoneal administration of β-D-glucan did not inhibit the nociception on the early phase, although it significantly inhibited the nociceptive response on the inflammatory phase by 69±11%, at a dose of 30 mg/kg, when compared to control group (C: 242.5±25.4 s). Despite of this test is mainly considered a pain model, anti-inflammatory drugs can also be effective on the late phase. Indeed, it was demonstrated that classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, paracetamol, and diclofenac can only attenuate the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response [50], [52], [53]. Thus, our results suggest that β-D-glucan isolated from C. militaris was effective against the inflammatory pain, with a similar anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs.


Anti-inflammatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris might be related to its linear (1→3)-β-D-glucan.

Smiderle FR, Baggio CH, Borato DG, Santana-Filho AP, Sassaki GL, Iacomini M, Van Griensven LJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan on neurogenic (A) and inflammatory phase (B) of nociception induced by formalin in mice. Footnote:Mice received vehicle (saline plus 5% Me2SO, 10 mL/kg, i.p.) or β-(1→3)-D-glucan (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before formalin administration. Statistical analyses were performed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman–Keuls’ test. The results represent the mean ± SEM of 10–12 animals. *p<0.05 versus control group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4201515&req=5

pone-0110266-g007: Effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan on neurogenic (A) and inflammatory phase (B) of nociception induced by formalin in mice. Footnote:Mice received vehicle (saline plus 5% Me2SO, 10 mL/kg, i.p.) or β-(1→3)-D-glucan (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before formalin administration. Statistical analyses were performed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman–Keuls’ test. The results represent the mean ± SEM of 10–12 animals. *p<0.05 versus control group.
Mentions: The results depicted in Figures 7A and 7B show that intraperitoneal administration of β-D-glucan did not inhibit the nociception on the early phase, although it significantly inhibited the nociceptive response on the inflammatory phase by 69±11%, at a dose of 30 mg/kg, when compared to control group (C: 242.5±25.4 s). Despite of this test is mainly considered a pain model, anti-inflammatory drugs can also be effective on the late phase. Indeed, it was demonstrated that classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, paracetamol, and diclofenac can only attenuate the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response [50], [52], [53]. Thus, our results suggest that β-D-glucan isolated from C. militaris was effective against the inflammatory pain, with a similar anti-inflammatory effect of NSAIDs.

Bottom Line: The aqueous (CW, HW) extracts stimulated the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 by THP-1 macrophages, while the alkaline (K5) extract did not show any effect.In vivo, β-(1→3)-D-glucan also inhibited significantly the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response, and, in addition, it reduced the migration of total leukocytes but not the neutrophils induced by LPS.In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, an entomopathogenic fungus, is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines. Studies related to its pharmacological properties suggest that this mushroom can exert interesting biological activities. Aqueous (CW and HW) and alkaline (K5) extracts containing polysaccharides were prepared from this mushroom, and a β-D-glucan was purified. This polymer was analysed by GC-MS and NMR spectrometry, showing a linear chain composed of β-D-Glcp (1→3)-linked. The six main signals in the 13C-NMR spectrum were assigned by comparison to reported data. The aqueous (CW, HW) extracts stimulated the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 by THP-1 macrophages, while the alkaline (K5) extract did not show any effect. However, when the extracts were added to the cells in the presence of LPS, K5 showed the highest inhibition of the pro-inflammatory genes expression. This inhibitory effect was also observed for the purified β-(1→3)-D-glucan, that seems to be the most potent anti-inflammatory compound present in the polysaccharide extracts of C. militaris. In vivo, β-(1→3)-D-glucan also inhibited significantly the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response, and, in addition, it reduced the migration of total leukocytes but not the neutrophils induced by LPS. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of β-(1→3)-D-glucan.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus