Limits...
Between two fern genomes.

Sessa EB, Banks JA, Barker MS, Der JP, Duffy AM, Graham SW, Hasebe M, Langdale J, Li FW, Marchant DB, Pryer KM, Rothfels CJ, Roux SJ, Salmi ML, Sigel EM, Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Stevenson DW, Wolf PG - Gigascience (2014)

Bottom Line: This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants.Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes.We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Box 118525, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA ; Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Box 103610, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to have their nuclear genomes sequenced. They differ dramatically in genome size, life history, and habit, and thus represent the immense diversity of extant ferns. Together, this pair of genomes will facilitate myriad large-scale comparative analyses across ferns and all land plants. Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes. We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogeny of major groups of land plants. Based on [13,15,19,20]. Approximate numbers of species and available genome sequences are given, and approximate times of major divergences are indicated. Ferns as a whole include lineages that diverged from one another prior to the divergence of the major seed plant clades. The most recent common ancestor of all leptosporangiates arose approximately 280 mya [17,18]. The ancestors of Ceratopteris and Azolla diverged from each other ca. 200 mya, well before the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Dates obtained from TimeTree [21,22].
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Figure 1: Phylogeny of major groups of land plants. Based on [13,15,19,20]. Approximate numbers of species and available genome sequences are given, and approximate times of major divergences are indicated. Ferns as a whole include lineages that diverged from one another prior to the divergence of the major seed plant clades. The most recent common ancestor of all leptosporangiates arose approximately 280 mya [17,18]. The ancestors of Ceratopteris and Azolla diverged from each other ca. 200 mya, well before the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Dates obtained from TimeTree [21,22].

Mentions: In a broad sense, ferns include four main clades: psilotoids (whisk ferns) + ophioglossoids, equisetoids (horsetails), marattioids, and leptosporangiates (Figure 1). The leptosporangiate ferns are the most species-rich clade by far, with over 9,000 species [15,16] that include the majority of fern species found in temperate and tropical regions. Ferns and seed plants diverged from a common ancestor around 380 million years ago (mya) (the oldest fern fossils date to ca. 350 mya [17]), and the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the leptosporangiate ferns arose ca. 280 mya [17,18]. Several fern lineages diverged from one another prior to the divergence of the angiosperm and gymnosperm sister clades (Figure 1).


Between two fern genomes.

Sessa EB, Banks JA, Barker MS, Der JP, Duffy AM, Graham SW, Hasebe M, Langdale J, Li FW, Marchant DB, Pryer KM, Rothfels CJ, Roux SJ, Salmi ML, Sigel EM, Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Stevenson DW, Wolf PG - Gigascience (2014)

Phylogeny of major groups of land plants. Based on [13,15,19,20]. Approximate numbers of species and available genome sequences are given, and approximate times of major divergences are indicated. Ferns as a whole include lineages that diverged from one another prior to the divergence of the major seed plant clades. The most recent common ancestor of all leptosporangiates arose approximately 280 mya [17,18]. The ancestors of Ceratopteris and Azolla diverged from each other ca. 200 mya, well before the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Dates obtained from TimeTree [21,22].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199785&req=5

Figure 1: Phylogeny of major groups of land plants. Based on [13,15,19,20]. Approximate numbers of species and available genome sequences are given, and approximate times of major divergences are indicated. Ferns as a whole include lineages that diverged from one another prior to the divergence of the major seed plant clades. The most recent common ancestor of all leptosporangiates arose approximately 280 mya [17,18]. The ancestors of Ceratopteris and Azolla diverged from each other ca. 200 mya, well before the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Dates obtained from TimeTree [21,22].
Mentions: In a broad sense, ferns include four main clades: psilotoids (whisk ferns) + ophioglossoids, equisetoids (horsetails), marattioids, and leptosporangiates (Figure 1). The leptosporangiate ferns are the most species-rich clade by far, with over 9,000 species [15,16] that include the majority of fern species found in temperate and tropical regions. Ferns and seed plants diverged from a common ancestor around 380 million years ago (mya) (the oldest fern fossils date to ca. 350 mya [17]), and the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the leptosporangiate ferns arose ca. 280 mya [17,18]. Several fern lineages diverged from one another prior to the divergence of the angiosperm and gymnosperm sister clades (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants.Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes.We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Box 118525, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA ; Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Box 103610, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to have their nuclear genomes sequenced. They differ dramatically in genome size, life history, and habit, and thus represent the immense diversity of extant ferns. Together, this pair of genomes will facilitate myriad large-scale comparative analyses across ferns and all land plants. Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes. We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves.

No MeSH data available.