Limits...
Treg/IL-17 ratio and Treg differentiation in patients with COPD.

Jin Y, Wan Y, Chen G, Chen L, Zhang MQ, Deng L, Zhang JC, Xiong XZ, Xin JB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Importantly, to remove the confounding effects of inflammatory factors, the authors introduced a concept of "inflammation adjustment" and corrected each measured value using representative inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α and IL-17.There were no significant differences in the percentages of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells among the three groups.All of these changes suggest a complicated mechanism of pro- and anti-inflammatory imbalance which needs to be further investigated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases of Health Ministry, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic pulmonary and systematic inflammation. An abnormal adaptive immune response leads to an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. T-helper (Th), T-cytotoxic (Tc) and T-regulatory (Treg) cells may play important roles in immune and inflammatory responses. This study was conducted to clarify the changes and imbalance of cytokines and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with COPD, especially during acute exacerbations (AECOPD).

Methods: Twenty-three patients with stable COPD (SCOPD) and 21 patients with AECOPD were enrolled in the present study. In addition, 20 age-, sex- and weight-matched non-smoking healthy volunteers were included as controls. The serum levels of selected cytokines (TGF-β, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-9) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, the T lymphocyte subsets collected from peripheral blood samples were evaluated by flow cytometry after staining with anti-CD3-APC, anti-CD4-PerCP, anti-CD8- PerCP, anti-CD25-FITC and anti-FoxP3-PE monoclonal antibodies. Importantly, to remove the confounding effects of inflammatory factors, the authors introduced a concept of "inflammation adjustment" and corrected each measured value using representative inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α and IL-17.

Results: Unlike the other cytokines, serum TGF-β levels were considerably higher in patients with AECOPD relative to the control group regardless of adjustment. There were no significant differences in the percentages of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells among the three groups. Although Tregs were relatively upregulated during acute exacerbations, their capacities of generation and differentiation were far from sufficient. Finally, the authors noted that the ratios of Treg/IL-17 were similar among groups.

Conclusions: These observations suggest that in patients with COPD, especially during acute exacerbations, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions are strengthened, with the pro-inflammatory reactions dominating. Although the Treg/IL-17 ratios were normal, the regulatory T cells were still insufficient to suppress the accompanying increases in inflammation. All of these changes suggest a complicated mechanism of pro- and anti-inflammatory imbalance which needs to be further investigated.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Serum concentrations of selected cytokines before and after adjustment for TNF-α and IL-17.The original values for the selected cytokines were quantitated in serum obtained from healthy nonsmokers (n = 20) and subjects with SCOPD (n = 23) and AECOPD (n = 21) by ELISA (A). To eliminate the mixed effects of inflammatory factors, the authors divided each original value by the arithmetic mean of a classical inflammatory marker, such as TNF-α (B) and IL-17 (C). The data are presented as the mean ± SEM, unless otherwise stated. *p<0.05 and **p<0.01.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199736&req=5

pone-0111044-g001: Serum concentrations of selected cytokines before and after adjustment for TNF-α and IL-17.The original values for the selected cytokines were quantitated in serum obtained from healthy nonsmokers (n = 20) and subjects with SCOPD (n = 23) and AECOPD (n = 21) by ELISA (A). To eliminate the mixed effects of inflammatory factors, the authors divided each original value by the arithmetic mean of a classical inflammatory marker, such as TNF-α (B) and IL-17 (C). The data are presented as the mean ± SEM, unless otherwise stated. *p<0.05 and **p<0.01.

Mentions: To evaluate cytokine accumulation in the progression of COPD, the authors analyzed the serum concentrations of cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10, which are considered to be primarily anti-inflammatory, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-9 (Figure 1A). The serum of the AECOPD subjects had significantly higher levels of all five cytokines compared with that of the healthy nonsmokers and with that of the SCOPD patients. Interestingly, the serum concentrations of certain cytokines in the patients with SCOPD were even lower than those in the healthy controls (e.g., IL-17, 7.63±0.41 pg/ml vs 17.13±1.99 pg/ml, P<0.01).


Treg/IL-17 ratio and Treg differentiation in patients with COPD.

Jin Y, Wan Y, Chen G, Chen L, Zhang MQ, Deng L, Zhang JC, Xiong XZ, Xin JB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Serum concentrations of selected cytokines before and after adjustment for TNF-α and IL-17.The original values for the selected cytokines were quantitated in serum obtained from healthy nonsmokers (n = 20) and subjects with SCOPD (n = 23) and AECOPD (n = 21) by ELISA (A). To eliminate the mixed effects of inflammatory factors, the authors divided each original value by the arithmetic mean of a classical inflammatory marker, such as TNF-α (B) and IL-17 (C). The data are presented as the mean ± SEM, unless otherwise stated. *p<0.05 and **p<0.01.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199736&req=5

pone-0111044-g001: Serum concentrations of selected cytokines before and after adjustment for TNF-α and IL-17.The original values for the selected cytokines were quantitated in serum obtained from healthy nonsmokers (n = 20) and subjects with SCOPD (n = 23) and AECOPD (n = 21) by ELISA (A). To eliminate the mixed effects of inflammatory factors, the authors divided each original value by the arithmetic mean of a classical inflammatory marker, such as TNF-α (B) and IL-17 (C). The data are presented as the mean ± SEM, unless otherwise stated. *p<0.05 and **p<0.01.
Mentions: To evaluate cytokine accumulation in the progression of COPD, the authors analyzed the serum concentrations of cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10, which are considered to be primarily anti-inflammatory, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-9 (Figure 1A). The serum of the AECOPD subjects had significantly higher levels of all five cytokines compared with that of the healthy nonsmokers and with that of the SCOPD patients. Interestingly, the serum concentrations of certain cytokines in the patients with SCOPD were even lower than those in the healthy controls (e.g., IL-17, 7.63±0.41 pg/ml vs 17.13±1.99 pg/ml, P<0.01).

Bottom Line: Importantly, to remove the confounding effects of inflammatory factors, the authors introduced a concept of "inflammation adjustment" and corrected each measured value using representative inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α and IL-17.There were no significant differences in the percentages of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells among the three groups.All of these changes suggest a complicated mechanism of pro- and anti-inflammatory imbalance which needs to be further investigated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases of Health Ministry, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic pulmonary and systematic inflammation. An abnormal adaptive immune response leads to an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. T-helper (Th), T-cytotoxic (Tc) and T-regulatory (Treg) cells may play important roles in immune and inflammatory responses. This study was conducted to clarify the changes and imbalance of cytokines and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with COPD, especially during acute exacerbations (AECOPD).

Methods: Twenty-three patients with stable COPD (SCOPD) and 21 patients with AECOPD were enrolled in the present study. In addition, 20 age-, sex- and weight-matched non-smoking healthy volunteers were included as controls. The serum levels of selected cytokines (TGF-β, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-9) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, the T lymphocyte subsets collected from peripheral blood samples were evaluated by flow cytometry after staining with anti-CD3-APC, anti-CD4-PerCP, anti-CD8- PerCP, anti-CD25-FITC and anti-FoxP3-PE monoclonal antibodies. Importantly, to remove the confounding effects of inflammatory factors, the authors introduced a concept of "inflammation adjustment" and corrected each measured value using representative inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α and IL-17.

Results: Unlike the other cytokines, serum TGF-β levels were considerably higher in patients with AECOPD relative to the control group regardless of adjustment. There were no significant differences in the percentages of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells among the three groups. Although Tregs were relatively upregulated during acute exacerbations, their capacities of generation and differentiation were far from sufficient. Finally, the authors noted that the ratios of Treg/IL-17 were similar among groups.

Conclusions: These observations suggest that in patients with COPD, especially during acute exacerbations, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions are strengthened, with the pro-inflammatory reactions dominating. Although the Treg/IL-17 ratios were normal, the regulatory T cells were still insufficient to suppress the accompanying increases in inflammation. All of these changes suggest a complicated mechanism of pro- and anti-inflammatory imbalance which needs to be further investigated.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus