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The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

Tran US, Cebolla A, Glück TM, Soler J, Garcia-Campayo J, von Moy T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness.A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research.Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness.

Methods: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis.

Results: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety.

Conclusions: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness, mechanisms of mindfulness, and depression and anxiety in the Spanish data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were mechanisms, and depression and anxiety. All ps <.015.
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pone-0110192-g003: Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness, mechanisms of mindfulness, and depression and anxiety in the Spanish data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were mechanisms, and depression and anxiety. All ps <.015.

Mentions: In the second model, depression and anxiety were included as endogenous variables, connected with paths to the mechanisms that were now mediating variables. Paths of mechanisms to depression and anxiety that were insignificant (p>.05), and mechanisms themselves that had no remaining significant paths, were then deleted in a stepwise procedure. The final model had a good fit to the data, χ2(16)  =  10.87, p  = .818, CFI  =  1.000, TLI  =  1.000, RMSEA  = .000 [.000,.029], it is depicted in Figure 3. Body Awareness, Acceptance of Emotions, Control & Regulation, Emotional Clarity, and Nonattachment remained in the model. For both depression and anxiety, Acceptance of Emotions, Control & Regulation, and Emotional Clarity were important mechanisms, Acceptance of Emotions most important regarding depression, Emotional Clarity most important regarding anxiety. Otherwise, Nonattachment was a further important and specific mechanism regarding depression, whereas Body Awareness regarding anxiety. Overall, the model explained 59% of the variance of depression scores and 57% of the variance of anxiety scores. The total effect (standardized estimates) of the higher-order factors (Self-regulated Attention/Orientation to Experience) on depression and anxiety scores amounted to -.33/-.31 (depression) and -.26/-.32 (anxiety; all ps <.003).


The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

Tran US, Cebolla A, Glück TM, Soler J, Garcia-Campayo J, von Moy T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness, mechanisms of mindfulness, and depression and anxiety in the Spanish data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were mechanisms, and depression and anxiety. All ps <.015.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199716&req=5

pone-0110192-g003: Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness, mechanisms of mindfulness, and depression and anxiety in the Spanish data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were mechanisms, and depression and anxiety. All ps <.015.
Mentions: In the second model, depression and anxiety were included as endogenous variables, connected with paths to the mechanisms that were now mediating variables. Paths of mechanisms to depression and anxiety that were insignificant (p>.05), and mechanisms themselves that had no remaining significant paths, were then deleted in a stepwise procedure. The final model had a good fit to the data, χ2(16)  =  10.87, p  = .818, CFI  =  1.000, TLI  =  1.000, RMSEA  = .000 [.000,.029], it is depicted in Figure 3. Body Awareness, Acceptance of Emotions, Control & Regulation, Emotional Clarity, and Nonattachment remained in the model. For both depression and anxiety, Acceptance of Emotions, Control & Regulation, and Emotional Clarity were important mechanisms, Acceptance of Emotions most important regarding depression, Emotional Clarity most important regarding anxiety. Otherwise, Nonattachment was a further important and specific mechanism regarding depression, whereas Body Awareness regarding anxiety. Overall, the model explained 59% of the variance of depression scores and 57% of the variance of anxiety scores. The total effect (standardized estimates) of the higher-order factors (Self-regulated Attention/Orientation to Experience) on depression and anxiety scores amounted to -.33/-.31 (depression) and -.26/-.32 (anxiety; all ps <.003).

Bottom Line: Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness.A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research.Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness.

Methods: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis.

Results: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety.

Conclusions: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus