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The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

Tran US, Cebolla A, Glück TM, Soler J, Garcia-Campayo J, von Moy T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness.A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research.Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness.

Methods: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis.

Results: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety.

Conclusions: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness and on facets of perceived stress in the German data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were the facets of perceived stress. All ps≤.001.
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pone-0110192-g002: Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness and on facets of perceived stress in the German data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were the facets of perceived stress. All ps≤.001.

Mentions: German meditators were similar in their reported levels of perceived stress (Table S3) to healthy adults [43]. A similar path model as for depression and anxiety was fitted to the German data regarding perceived stress (Table S3). The model fitted the data well, χ2(4)  =  5.95, p  = .203, CFI  = .999, TLI  = .997, RMSEA  = .023 [.000,.060], and is depicted in Figure 2. Orientation to Experience was, again, a slightly stronger predictor of all facets of perceived stress save Joy than Self-regulated Attention, corroborating the pattern obtained before with regard to depression and anxiety. Overall, the model explained 36% to 38% of the variance of Worries, Tension, and Joy scores, respectively, and 16% of the Demands score variance. The total effect (standardized estimates) of meditation experience on the former three scores was around.18 each (ps <.001) and.12 (p <.001) on Demands scores.


The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

Tran US, Cebolla A, Glück TM, Soler J, Garcia-Campayo J, von Moy T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness and on facets of perceived stress in the German data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were the facets of perceived stress. All ps≤.001.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199716&req=5

pone-0110192-g002: Path model on the effects of meditation experience on mindfulness and on facets of perceived stress in the German data.Numbers are standardized path coefficients. SRA  =  Self-regulated Attention; OTE  =  Orientation to Experience. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to experience were allowed to correlate, as were the facets of perceived stress. All ps≤.001.
Mentions: German meditators were similar in their reported levels of perceived stress (Table S3) to healthy adults [43]. A similar path model as for depression and anxiety was fitted to the German data regarding perceived stress (Table S3). The model fitted the data well, χ2(4)  =  5.95, p  = .203, CFI  = .999, TLI  = .997, RMSEA  = .023 [.000,.060], and is depicted in Figure 2. Orientation to Experience was, again, a slightly stronger predictor of all facets of perceived stress save Joy than Self-regulated Attention, corroborating the pattern obtained before with regard to depression and anxiety. Overall, the model explained 36% to 38% of the variance of Worries, Tension, and Joy scores, respectively, and 16% of the Demands score variance. The total effect (standardized estimates) of meditation experience on the former three scores was around.18 each (ps <.001) and.12 (p <.001) on Demands scores.

Bottom Line: Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness.A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research.Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness.

Methods: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis.

Results: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety.

Conclusions: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus