Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in nine-spined stickleback populations.
Bottom Line: In general, high magnitude (D' > 0.5) of LD was found both in freshwater and marine populations, and the magnitude of LD was significantly greater in inland freshwater than in marine populations.The greater levels of LD in inland freshwater compared with marine and costal freshwater populations can be explained in terms of their contrasting demographic histories: founder events, long-term isolation, small effective sizes, and population bottlenecks are factors likely to have contributed to the high levels of LD in the inland freshwater populations.In general, these findings shed new light on the patterns and extent of variation in genome-wide LD, as well as the ecological and evolutionary factors driving them.
Affiliation: CAS Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101, China.Show MeSH
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Mentions: A total of 312 nine-spined stickleback individuals (24 per population) from three marine and 10 freshwater populations were included in the analyses. The sampling sites covered a large part of the Fennoscandian area and encompassed a diverse array of habitats (viz. marine, river, lake, and pond populations; Figure 1 and Table 1). Marine fish were collected from the White Sea (Lev) and the Baltic Sea (Sbol and Hel), whereas freshwater fish were collected from one river (Mat), five lakes (Rah, L1, Por, Ska, and Kro) and four ponds (Ryt, Rbol, Pyo, and Byn; Figure 1). Three of the freshwater populations (Mat, Kro, and Rbol) located in close proximity to coastlines (Figure 1) were referred to as coastal freshwater populations, while the other seven freshwater populations (Rah, L1, Por, Ska, Ryt, Pyo, and Byn; Figure 1) were considered as inland freshwater populations.
Affiliation: CAS Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101, China.