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Morphological variation on isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai.

Benítez HA, Pizarro-Araya J, Bravi R, Sanzana MJ, Alfaro FM - J. Insect Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: Moreover, differences between populations emerged also from the canonical variation analysis and were confirmed by the Procrustes ANOVA.All analyses performed confirmed the existence of a pattern of variation, due to the isolation of the populations and to environmental effects.This study indicates the existence of a clear pattern of variation, which indicates an evolutionary trend among the population examined.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7-D Arica, Chile hugo.benitez@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk.

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Canonical variate analysis of three of the four isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai: Gaviota (green), Choros (blue), and mainland (red). In the figure are shown the first two canonical variate compenents' axes with shape deformation images associated. (A) Canonical variate analysis for the symmetric component, (B) canonical variate analysis for the asymmetric component. High quality figures are available online.
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f03_01: Canonical variate analysis of three of the four isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai: Gaviota (green), Choros (blue), and mainland (red). In the figure are shown the first two canonical variate compenents' axes with shape deformation images associated. (A) Canonical variate analysis for the symmetric component, (B) canonical variate analysis for the asymmetric component. High quality figures are available online.

Mentions: The PCA for the symmetric component (individual variation) showed differences between the three populations analyzed. The first two PCs accounted for 55.37% (PC1 + PC2 = 33.33% + 22.04%) of the total shape variation and provided a reasonable approximation of the total amount of variation. The other PC components accounted for no more than 12% of the variation each. The PCA analyses for the asymmetry component (leftright asymmetries) showed differences between populations as well. The first two PCs accounted for 52.33% (PC1 + PC2 = 38.84% + 13.49%) of the total shape variation, and the other PCs accounted for no more than 9% of the variation each. According to PCA, canonical variate analysis showed significant differences in both symmetric and asymmetric components between the three populapopulations examined and after permutation test (10,000 permutation runs) (Table 1, Figure 3). Finally, Procrustes ANOVA for size did not show significant differences between populations (F = 1.37, p < 0.2545). Procrustes ANOVA for shape showed differences between populations (F = 3.05, p < 0.0001) and high differences among individuals emerged (F = 5.79, p < 0.0001). MANOVA tests, for both symmetric and asymmetric components, confirmed these results (Pillai's trace = 1.09, p < 0.0001; Pillai's trace = 0.78, p < 0.0001, respectively).


Morphological variation on isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai.

Benítez HA, Pizarro-Araya J, Bravi R, Sanzana MJ, Alfaro FM - J. Insect Sci. (2014)

Canonical variate analysis of three of the four isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai: Gaviota (green), Choros (blue), and mainland (red). In the figure are shown the first two canonical variate compenents' axes with shape deformation images associated. (A) Canonical variate analysis for the symmetric component, (B) canonical variate analysis for the asymmetric component. High quality figures are available online.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199532&req=5

f03_01: Canonical variate analysis of three of the four isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai: Gaviota (green), Choros (blue), and mainland (red). In the figure are shown the first two canonical variate compenents' axes with shape deformation images associated. (A) Canonical variate analysis for the symmetric component, (B) canonical variate analysis for the asymmetric component. High quality figures are available online.
Mentions: The PCA for the symmetric component (individual variation) showed differences between the three populations analyzed. The first two PCs accounted for 55.37% (PC1 + PC2 = 33.33% + 22.04%) of the total shape variation and provided a reasonable approximation of the total amount of variation. The other PC components accounted for no more than 12% of the variation each. The PCA analyses for the asymmetry component (leftright asymmetries) showed differences between populations as well. The first two PCs accounted for 52.33% (PC1 + PC2 = 38.84% + 13.49%) of the total shape variation, and the other PCs accounted for no more than 9% of the variation each. According to PCA, canonical variate analysis showed significant differences in both symmetric and asymmetric components between the three populapopulations examined and after permutation test (10,000 permutation runs) (Table 1, Figure 3). Finally, Procrustes ANOVA for size did not show significant differences between populations (F = 1.37, p < 0.2545). Procrustes ANOVA for shape showed differences between populations (F = 3.05, p < 0.0001) and high differences among individuals emerged (F = 5.79, p < 0.0001). MANOVA tests, for both symmetric and asymmetric components, confirmed these results (Pillai's trace = 1.09, p < 0.0001; Pillai's trace = 0.78, p < 0.0001, respectively).

Bottom Line: Moreover, differences between populations emerged also from the canonical variation analysis and were confirmed by the Procrustes ANOVA.All analyses performed confirmed the existence of a pattern of variation, due to the isolation of the populations and to environmental effects.This study indicates the existence of a clear pattern of variation, which indicates an evolutionary trend among the population examined.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7-D Arica, Chile hugo.benitez@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus