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Morphological variation on isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai.

Benítez HA, Pizarro-Araya J, Bravi R, Sanzana MJ, Alfaro FM - J. Insect Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: Moreover, differences between populations emerged also from the canonical variation analysis and were confirmed by the Procrustes ANOVA.All analyses performed confirmed the existence of a pattern of variation, due to the isolation of the populations and to environmental effects.This study indicates the existence of a clear pattern of variation, which indicates an evolutionary trend among the population examined.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7-D Arica, Chile hugo.benitez@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk.

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Indication of 20 landmarks in the ventral view of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai. 1: pygidium, 2: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 3: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 4: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 5: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 6: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 7: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 8: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 9: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 10: right lateral vertex of metastern, 11: left lateral vertex of metastern, 12: mean point of metastern, 13: lower mean point of mesostern, 14: right vertex of pronotal epimere, 15: left vertex of pronotal epimere, 16: right pronotal posterior angle, 17: left pronotal posterior angle, 18: right vertex of lip, 19: left vertex of lip, 20: mean point of head between mandibles. High quality figures are available online.
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f02_01: Indication of 20 landmarks in the ventral view of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai. 1: pygidium, 2: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 3: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 4: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 5: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 6: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 7: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 8: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 9: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 10: right lateral vertex of metastern, 11: left lateral vertex of metastern, 12: mean point of metastern, 13: lower mean point of mesostern, 14: right vertex of pronotal epimere, 15: left vertex of pronotal epimere, 16: right pronotal posterior angle, 17: left pronotal posterior angle, 18: right vertex of lip, 19: left vertex of lip, 20: mean point of head between mandibles. High quality figures are available online.

Mentions: A total of 117 selected specimens of P. (P) spinolai were used for the morphometric analyses. Fifty-five individuals were analyzed from the continental ecotope and 58 from the island ecotope (33 Gaviota, 25 Choros, and 4 Damas). The ventral side of each individual was photographed using a Nikon Coolpix L120 digital camera (14 megapixel, www.nikon.com). Twenty landmarks were digitized (anatomical homologous points) on every picture with TpsDig 2.10 (Rohlf 2006) (Figure 2). All analyses were then run using MorphoJ software version 1.05a (Klingenberg 2011).


Morphological variation on isolated populations of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai.

Benítez HA, Pizarro-Araya J, Bravi R, Sanzana MJ, Alfaro FM - J. Insect Sci. (2014)

Indication of 20 landmarks in the ventral view of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai. 1: pygidium, 2: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 3: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 4: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 5: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 6: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 7: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 8: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 9: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 10: right lateral vertex of metastern, 11: left lateral vertex of metastern, 12: mean point of metastern, 13: lower mean point of mesostern, 14: right vertex of pronotal epimere, 15: left vertex of pronotal epimere, 16: right pronotal posterior angle, 17: left pronotal posterior angle, 18: right vertex of lip, 19: left vertex of lip, 20: mean point of head between mandibles. High quality figures are available online.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199532&req=5

f02_01: Indication of 20 landmarks in the ventral view of Praocis (Praocis) spinolai. 1: pygidium, 2: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 3: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 4, 4: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 5: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 3, 6: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 7: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 2, 8: right lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 9: left lateral vertex of abdominal segment 1, 10: right lateral vertex of metastern, 11: left lateral vertex of metastern, 12: mean point of metastern, 13: lower mean point of mesostern, 14: right vertex of pronotal epimere, 15: left vertex of pronotal epimere, 16: right pronotal posterior angle, 17: left pronotal posterior angle, 18: right vertex of lip, 19: left vertex of lip, 20: mean point of head between mandibles. High quality figures are available online.
Mentions: A total of 117 selected specimens of P. (P) spinolai were used for the morphometric analyses. Fifty-five individuals were analyzed from the continental ecotope and 58 from the island ecotope (33 Gaviota, 25 Choros, and 4 Damas). The ventral side of each individual was photographed using a Nikon Coolpix L120 digital camera (14 megapixel, www.nikon.com). Twenty landmarks were digitized (anatomical homologous points) on every picture with TpsDig 2.10 (Rohlf 2006) (Figure 2). All analyses were then run using MorphoJ software version 1.05a (Klingenberg 2011).

Bottom Line: Moreover, differences between populations emerged also from the canonical variation analysis and were confirmed by the Procrustes ANOVA.All analyses performed confirmed the existence of a pattern of variation, due to the isolation of the populations and to environmental effects.This study indicates the existence of a clear pattern of variation, which indicates an evolutionary trend among the population examined.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7-D Arica, Chile hugo.benitez@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus