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The evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamics of the fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV) in China.

Huang X, Liu L, Du Y, Wu W, Wang H, Su J, Tang X, Liu Q, Yang Y, Jiang Y, Chen W, Xu B - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: The speed of FTLSV movement has increased in recent decades, likely facilitated by modern human activity and ecosystem changes.Results presented in the manuscript suggest that the Huaiyangshan area is likely be the origin of FTLSV in China and identified probable viral migration routes.These results provide new insights into the origin and spread of FTLSV in China, and provide a foundation for future virological surveillance and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for disease control and prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2007, a novel bunyavirus was found in Henan Province, China and named fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV); since then, FTLSV has been found in ticks and animals in many Chinese provinces. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, indicating that FTLSV should be considered a potential public health threat. Determining the historical spread of FTLSV could help curtail its spread and prevent future movement of this virus.

Method/principal findings: To examine the pattern of FTLSV evolution and the origin of outbreak strains, as well to examine the rate of evolution, the genome of 12 FTLSV strains were sequenced and a phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of all available FTLSV sequences in China were performed. Analysis based on the FTLSV L segment suggests that the virus likely originated somewhere in Huaiyangshan circa 1790 (95% highest probability density interval: 1756-1817) and began spreading around 1806 (95% highest probability density interval: 1773-1834). Analysis also indicates that when FTLSV arrived in Jiangsu province from Huaiyangshan, Jiangsu Province became another source for the spread of the disease. Bayesian factor test analysis identified three major transmission routes: Huaiyangshan to Jiangsu, Jiangsu to Liaoning, and Jiangsu to Shandong. The speed of FTLSV movement has increased in recent decades, likely facilitated by modern human activity and ecosystem changes. In addition, evidence of RNA segment reassortment was found in FTLSV; purifying selection appears to have been the dominant force in the evolution of this virus.

Conclusion: Results presented in the manuscript suggest that the Huaiyangshan area is likely be the origin of FTLSV in China and identified probable viral migration routes. These results provide new insights into the origin and spread of FTLSV in China, and provide a foundation for future virological surveillance and control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum clade credibility tree based on L genes summarized for FTLSV were generated using the geospatial Bayesian analysis.Posterior clade probabilities for key nodes were shown. The colors of the branches correspond to their probable geographic location as calculated using the geospatial analysis.
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pntd-0003237-g004: Maximum clade credibility tree based on L genes summarized for FTLSV were generated using the geospatial Bayesian analysis.Posterior clade probabilities for key nodes were shown. The colors of the branches correspond to their probable geographic location as calculated using the geospatial analysis.

Mentions: To determine the geographic origins and movements of FLTSV in China, the results of the Bayesian phylogeographic analyses were summarized by annotating the MCC tree nodes with their most probable location states via color labeling (Figure 4). The colors of the tree branches represent the most probable locations of their associated viral lineages (i.e., those supported by the highest probabilities), and a color change between two connected nodes implies a probable migration event. Simulative spatiotemporal pattern of FLTSV movements in China since the time of the MRCA was also visualized in Google Earth. The phylogeographic analysis showed the Huaiyangshan area appears to have been the origin of FLTSV in China (Figure 5). This was confirmed by the MCC tree, which showed that the MRCA of genotypes A–E originated in Huaiyangshan. The root state posterior probabilities for all locations ranged between 9.21% for Liaoning and 37.40% for Huaiyangshan. These dispersal histories are summarized in Figure 5, which shows snapshots of the dispersal patterns between locations from 1793 to 2012. Two main spread routes were observed (Figure 5A, Figure 5B, Figure 5C). FLTSV initially spread from the Huaiyangshan region into the surrounding provinces: eastward to Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces, and northward to Liaoning and Shandong Provinces. Thereafter, FTLSV is predicted to have spread from the Jiangsu Province to Liaoning, Shandong, and Anhui Provinces. In a further investigation of these diffusion patterns, the BF test identified three well-supported (BF>3) migration routes for FTLSV (Figure 5D): from Huaiyangshan to Jiangsu (BF = 9.74), from Jiangsu to Shandong (BF = 3.35), and from Jiangsu to Liaoning (BF = 3.17).


The evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamics of the fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV) in China.

Huang X, Liu L, Du Y, Wu W, Wang H, Su J, Tang X, Liu Q, Yang Y, Jiang Y, Chen W, Xu B - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Maximum clade credibility tree based on L genes summarized for FTLSV were generated using the geospatial Bayesian analysis.Posterior clade probabilities for key nodes were shown. The colors of the branches correspond to their probable geographic location as calculated using the geospatial analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4199521&req=5

pntd-0003237-g004: Maximum clade credibility tree based on L genes summarized for FTLSV were generated using the geospatial Bayesian analysis.Posterior clade probabilities for key nodes were shown. The colors of the branches correspond to their probable geographic location as calculated using the geospatial analysis.
Mentions: To determine the geographic origins and movements of FLTSV in China, the results of the Bayesian phylogeographic analyses were summarized by annotating the MCC tree nodes with their most probable location states via color labeling (Figure 4). The colors of the tree branches represent the most probable locations of their associated viral lineages (i.e., those supported by the highest probabilities), and a color change between two connected nodes implies a probable migration event. Simulative spatiotemporal pattern of FLTSV movements in China since the time of the MRCA was also visualized in Google Earth. The phylogeographic analysis showed the Huaiyangshan area appears to have been the origin of FLTSV in China (Figure 5). This was confirmed by the MCC tree, which showed that the MRCA of genotypes A–E originated in Huaiyangshan. The root state posterior probabilities for all locations ranged between 9.21% for Liaoning and 37.40% for Huaiyangshan. These dispersal histories are summarized in Figure 5, which shows snapshots of the dispersal patterns between locations from 1793 to 2012. Two main spread routes were observed (Figure 5A, Figure 5B, Figure 5C). FLTSV initially spread from the Huaiyangshan region into the surrounding provinces: eastward to Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces, and northward to Liaoning and Shandong Provinces. Thereafter, FTLSV is predicted to have spread from the Jiangsu Province to Liaoning, Shandong, and Anhui Provinces. In a further investigation of these diffusion patterns, the BF test identified three well-supported (BF>3) migration routes for FTLSV (Figure 5D): from Huaiyangshan to Jiangsu (BF = 9.74), from Jiangsu to Shandong (BF = 3.35), and from Jiangsu to Liaoning (BF = 3.17).

Bottom Line: The speed of FTLSV movement has increased in recent decades, likely facilitated by modern human activity and ecosystem changes.Results presented in the manuscript suggest that the Huaiyangshan area is likely be the origin of FTLSV in China and identified probable viral migration routes.These results provide new insights into the origin and spread of FTLSV in China, and provide a foundation for future virological surveillance and control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for disease control and prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2007, a novel bunyavirus was found in Henan Province, China and named fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV); since then, FTLSV has been found in ticks and animals in many Chinese provinces. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, indicating that FTLSV should be considered a potential public health threat. Determining the historical spread of FTLSV could help curtail its spread and prevent future movement of this virus.

Method/principal findings: To examine the pattern of FTLSV evolution and the origin of outbreak strains, as well to examine the rate of evolution, the genome of 12 FTLSV strains were sequenced and a phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of all available FTLSV sequences in China were performed. Analysis based on the FTLSV L segment suggests that the virus likely originated somewhere in Huaiyangshan circa 1790 (95% highest probability density interval: 1756-1817) and began spreading around 1806 (95% highest probability density interval: 1773-1834). Analysis also indicates that when FTLSV arrived in Jiangsu province from Huaiyangshan, Jiangsu Province became another source for the spread of the disease. Bayesian factor test analysis identified three major transmission routes: Huaiyangshan to Jiangsu, Jiangsu to Liaoning, and Jiangsu to Shandong. The speed of FTLSV movement has increased in recent decades, likely facilitated by modern human activity and ecosystem changes. In addition, evidence of RNA segment reassortment was found in FTLSV; purifying selection appears to have been the dominant force in the evolution of this virus.

Conclusion: Results presented in the manuscript suggest that the Huaiyangshan area is likely be the origin of FTLSV in China and identified probable viral migration routes. These results provide new insights into the origin and spread of FTLSV in China, and provide a foundation for future virological surveillance and control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus