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Changes in talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics of barefoot versus shod forefoot landing.

Fukano M, Fukubayashi T - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

Bottom Line: The objective of this study was to assess the kinematic differences in the talocrural and subtalar joints during barefoot and shod landing.These results suggest that footwear was able to reduce the eversion angle of the subtalar joint after heel contact during landing; the effect of wearing footwear was quite limited.Therefore, induced rearfoot kinematic alterations to prevent or manage injuries by neutral-type footwear are likely to be impractical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15, Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Synergetic talocrural and subtalar joint movements allow adaptation to different footwear and/or surface conditions. Therefore, knowledge of kinematic differences between barefoot and shod conditions is valuable for the study of adaptations to footwear conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the kinematic differences in the talocrural and subtalar joints during barefoot and shod landing.

Methods: Seven healthy participants (4 males and 3 females) participated in a landing trial under barefoot and shod conditions. Fluoroscopic images and forceplate data were collected simultaneously to calculate the talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics and the vertical ground reaction force.

Results: Upon toe contact, the plantarflexion angle of the talocrural joint during the barefoot condition was significantly larger than that during the shod condition (barefoot, 20.5 ± 7.1°, shod, 17.9 ± 8.3°, p =0.03). From toe contact to heel contact, the angular changes at the talocrural and subtalar joint were not significantly different between the barefoot and shod conditions; however, the changes in the subtalar eversion angles in the barefoot condition, from heel contact to 150 ms after toe contact, were significantly larger than those in the shod condition.

Conclusions: These results suggest that footwear was able to reduce the eversion angle of the subtalar joint after heel contact during landing; the effect of wearing footwear was quite limited. Therefore, induced rearfoot kinematic alterations to prevent or manage injuries by neutral-type footwear are likely to be impractical.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anatomic coordinate system of the talus (a), tibia (b), and calcaneus (c).
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Fig2: Anatomic coordinate system of the talus (a), tibia (b), and calcaneus (c).

Mentions: Geometric bone models of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus were created from computed tomography (CT) scans (IDT 16, Philips, Amsterdam, Netherlands) of the right leg. The CT scans also used image areas of 512 × 512 pixels and a 0.4-mm overlapping slice thickness, spanning the distance 15 cm proximal to the malleolus to the plantar surface (200 mA/slice, 120 kV, CTDI 15.5 mGy). Exterior cortical bone edges were segmented using open source software (ITK-SNAP [19]). Anatomical coordinate systems were embedded in each bone model, according to published definitions [15,20] (Geomagic Studio, Geomagic, Morrisville, NC, USA). The tibial origin was placed at the centroid of the tibial plafond; the Y-axis was parallel to the shaft; and the X-axis was the line perpendicular to the line connecting the anteromedial and anterolateral edges of the tibial plafond. The talar origin was placed at the center of a circle that circumscribed the trochlea tali; the circle contained the midpoint of the anteromedial and anterolateral edges and the midpoint of posteromedial and posterolateral edges of the trochlea. The Z-axis was defined as the line perpendicular to the circle, with the X-axis parallel to the line that linked the anterior and posterior edges of the trochlea with the circle. The calcaneal origin was placed at the center of the line that linked the most lateral point of the posterior articular surface with the most medial point of the middle articular surface. The X-axis was parallel to the inferior surface of the calcaneus, and the Y-axis was parallel to the lateral surface of the calcaneus (Figure 2). The motion at the talocrural joint was defined as the motion of the talus relative to the tibia. The motion at the subtalar joint was defined as the motion of the calcaneus relative to the talus. Kinematics at the talocrural and subtalar joints were expressed using a joint coordinate system because it provides an anatomic, easily interpreted description. We also defined terms to describe the motion of the talocrural and subtalar joints: dorsi/plantarflexion was defined as the rotation around the mediolateral axis, eversion/inversion was defined as rotation around the anteroposterior axis, and external/internal rotation was defined as the rotation around the proximodistal axis.Figure 2


Changes in talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics of barefoot versus shod forefoot landing.

Fukano M, Fukubayashi T - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

Anatomic coordinate system of the talus (a), tibia (b), and calcaneus (c).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197340&req=5

Fig2: Anatomic coordinate system of the talus (a), tibia (b), and calcaneus (c).
Mentions: Geometric bone models of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus were created from computed tomography (CT) scans (IDT 16, Philips, Amsterdam, Netherlands) of the right leg. The CT scans also used image areas of 512 × 512 pixels and a 0.4-mm overlapping slice thickness, spanning the distance 15 cm proximal to the malleolus to the plantar surface (200 mA/slice, 120 kV, CTDI 15.5 mGy). Exterior cortical bone edges were segmented using open source software (ITK-SNAP [19]). Anatomical coordinate systems were embedded in each bone model, according to published definitions [15,20] (Geomagic Studio, Geomagic, Morrisville, NC, USA). The tibial origin was placed at the centroid of the tibial plafond; the Y-axis was parallel to the shaft; and the X-axis was the line perpendicular to the line connecting the anteromedial and anterolateral edges of the tibial plafond. The talar origin was placed at the center of a circle that circumscribed the trochlea tali; the circle contained the midpoint of the anteromedial and anterolateral edges and the midpoint of posteromedial and posterolateral edges of the trochlea. The Z-axis was defined as the line perpendicular to the circle, with the X-axis parallel to the line that linked the anterior and posterior edges of the trochlea with the circle. The calcaneal origin was placed at the center of the line that linked the most lateral point of the posterior articular surface with the most medial point of the middle articular surface. The X-axis was parallel to the inferior surface of the calcaneus, and the Y-axis was parallel to the lateral surface of the calcaneus (Figure 2). The motion at the talocrural joint was defined as the motion of the talus relative to the tibia. The motion at the subtalar joint was defined as the motion of the calcaneus relative to the talus. Kinematics at the talocrural and subtalar joints were expressed using a joint coordinate system because it provides an anatomic, easily interpreted description. We also defined terms to describe the motion of the talocrural and subtalar joints: dorsi/plantarflexion was defined as the rotation around the mediolateral axis, eversion/inversion was defined as rotation around the anteroposterior axis, and external/internal rotation was defined as the rotation around the proximodistal axis.Figure 2

Bottom Line: The objective of this study was to assess the kinematic differences in the talocrural and subtalar joints during barefoot and shod landing.These results suggest that footwear was able to reduce the eversion angle of the subtalar joint after heel contact during landing; the effect of wearing footwear was quite limited.Therefore, induced rearfoot kinematic alterations to prevent or manage injuries by neutral-type footwear are likely to be impractical.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15, Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Synergetic talocrural and subtalar joint movements allow adaptation to different footwear and/or surface conditions. Therefore, knowledge of kinematic differences between barefoot and shod conditions is valuable for the study of adaptations to footwear conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the kinematic differences in the talocrural and subtalar joints during barefoot and shod landing.

Methods: Seven healthy participants (4 males and 3 females) participated in a landing trial under barefoot and shod conditions. Fluoroscopic images and forceplate data were collected simultaneously to calculate the talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics and the vertical ground reaction force.

Results: Upon toe contact, the plantarflexion angle of the talocrural joint during the barefoot condition was significantly larger than that during the shod condition (barefoot, 20.5 ± 7.1°, shod, 17.9 ± 8.3°, p =0.03). From toe contact to heel contact, the angular changes at the talocrural and subtalar joint were not significantly different between the barefoot and shod conditions; however, the changes in the subtalar eversion angles in the barefoot condition, from heel contact to 150 ms after toe contact, were significantly larger than those in the shod condition.

Conclusions: These results suggest that footwear was able to reduce the eversion angle of the subtalar joint after heel contact during landing; the effect of wearing footwear was quite limited. Therefore, induced rearfoot kinematic alterations to prevent or manage injuries by neutral-type footwear are likely to be impractical.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus