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Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Idrus Z, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, Shakeri M, Oskoueian A - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant.Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05).The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia. norhani.biotech@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens.

Methods: This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated.

Results: The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity.

Conclusion: Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression of iNOS (a) and Hsp70 (b) proteins in chicken hepatocytes. (I: Untreated cells, II: Heat-induced cells, III: Heat-induced cells + PKC extract, IV: Heat-induced cells + silymarin). Equal amounts of total cellular protein from different treatments were subjected to Western blot analyses for iNOS, Hsp70 and β-actin proteins. The graph represents the mean ± standard error from three independent experiments, *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01 and * p < 0.05 indicate significant difference compared to the untreated cells.
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Fig3: Expression of iNOS (a) and Hsp70 (b) proteins in chicken hepatocytes. (I: Untreated cells, II: Heat-induced cells, III: Heat-induced cells + PKC extract, IV: Heat-induced cells + silymarin). Equal amounts of total cellular protein from different treatments were subjected to Western blot analyses for iNOS, Hsp70 and β-actin proteins. The graph represents the mean ± standard error from three independent experiments, *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01 and * p < 0.05 indicate significant difference compared to the untreated cells.

Mentions: The expression of genes in chicken hepatocytes upon various treatments is presented in Table 4. The heat induction significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated the expression of TNF-like, INF-γ and IL-1β genes with values 6.5, 4.4 and 5.3 folds, respectively. Treatment of heat-induced cells with PKC extract decreased the expression levels of these genes to 3.1, 2.4 and 2.8 folds. Likewise, silymarin also alleviated the expression levels of these genes to 2.7, 2.3 and 2.5 folds, respectively.Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the expression levels of proteins in chicken hepatocytes. The expression levels of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins in untreated hepatocytes were 1 ± 0.11, 1 ± 0.14, 1 ± 0.07 and 1 ± 0.12 folds, respectively. These values were significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated in response to heat stress in chicken hepatocytes to 3.2 ± 0.33, 4.3 ± 0.47, 3.4 ± 0.17 and 4.9 ± 0.17 folds, respectively. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, both PKC extract and silymarin ameliorated the expression of stress proteins as biomarkers of oxidative stress. The PKC extract was able to alleviate the expression of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins in heat-induced cells to 1.8 ± 0.16, 2.8 ± 0.21, 2.2 ± 0.16 and 3.1 ± 0.16 folds, respectively. The expression of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins for the hepatocytes treated by silymarin were 1.51 ± 0.12, 2.16 ± 0.22, 1.8 ± 0.13 and 2.4 ± 0.14 folds, respectively.Table 4


Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Idrus Z, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, Shakeri M, Oskoueian A - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Expression of iNOS (a) and Hsp70 (b) proteins in chicken hepatocytes. (I: Untreated cells, II: Heat-induced cells, III: Heat-induced cells + PKC extract, IV: Heat-induced cells + silymarin). Equal amounts of total cellular protein from different treatments were subjected to Western blot analyses for iNOS, Hsp70 and β-actin proteins. The graph represents the mean ± standard error from three independent experiments, *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01 and * p < 0.05 indicate significant difference compared to the untreated cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197309&req=5

Fig3: Expression of iNOS (a) and Hsp70 (b) proteins in chicken hepatocytes. (I: Untreated cells, II: Heat-induced cells, III: Heat-induced cells + PKC extract, IV: Heat-induced cells + silymarin). Equal amounts of total cellular protein from different treatments were subjected to Western blot analyses for iNOS, Hsp70 and β-actin proteins. The graph represents the mean ± standard error from three independent experiments, *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01 and * p < 0.05 indicate significant difference compared to the untreated cells.
Mentions: The expression of genes in chicken hepatocytes upon various treatments is presented in Table 4. The heat induction significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated the expression of TNF-like, INF-γ and IL-1β genes with values 6.5, 4.4 and 5.3 folds, respectively. Treatment of heat-induced cells with PKC extract decreased the expression levels of these genes to 3.1, 2.4 and 2.8 folds. Likewise, silymarin also alleviated the expression levels of these genes to 2.7, 2.3 and 2.5 folds, respectively.Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the expression levels of proteins in chicken hepatocytes. The expression levels of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins in untreated hepatocytes were 1 ± 0.11, 1 ± 0.14, 1 ± 0.07 and 1 ± 0.12 folds, respectively. These values were significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated in response to heat stress in chicken hepatocytes to 3.2 ± 0.33, 4.3 ± 0.47, 3.4 ± 0.17 and 4.9 ± 0.17 folds, respectively. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, both PKC extract and silymarin ameliorated the expression of stress proteins as biomarkers of oxidative stress. The PKC extract was able to alleviate the expression of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins in heat-induced cells to 1.8 ± 0.16, 2.8 ± 0.21, 2.2 ± 0.16 and 3.1 ± 0.16 folds, respectively. The expression of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins for the hepatocytes treated by silymarin were 1.51 ± 0.12, 2.16 ± 0.22, 1.8 ± 0.13 and 2.4 ± 0.14 folds, respectively.Table 4

Bottom Line: The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant.Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05).The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia. norhani.biotech@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens.

Methods: This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated.

Results: The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity.

Conclusion: Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus