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Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa: the beginnings of a tragic saga.

Chippaux JP - J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent.It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease.The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

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Affiliation: UMR 216, Mother and Child Facing Tropical Diseases, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Cotonou, Bénin ; Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent. This review aims to describe the 27 manifestations of Ebola virus that arose after its discovery in 1976. It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease. The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

No MeSH data available.


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Study of Ebola virus in a high-security laboratory BSL-4 (photo by IRD, ©IRD).
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Fig3: Study of Ebola virus in a high-security laboratory BSL-4 (photo by IRD, ©IRD).

Mentions: The clinical diagnosis is difficult at the beginning of the epidemics, because of the poor specificity of the symptoms[24, 27, 29, 30, 33]. When the virus responsible for the outbreak is identified, all suspected cases should be considered as high risk and meet the case definition and exposure risks (Tables 2 and3) for better management of the epidemic. There is no carrier state.Laboratory diagnosis can only be performed in a specialized laboratory. First, there is no commercial reagent and, secondly, the samples represent an extreme biohazard that must be handled under containment conditions of the highest level (biosafety level 4 – BSL-4; Figure 3).Table 2


Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa: the beginnings of a tragic saga.

Chippaux JP - J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis (2014)

Study of Ebola virus in a high-security laboratory BSL-4 (photo by IRD, ©IRD).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197285&req=5

Fig3: Study of Ebola virus in a high-security laboratory BSL-4 (photo by IRD, ©IRD).
Mentions: The clinical diagnosis is difficult at the beginning of the epidemics, because of the poor specificity of the symptoms[24, 27, 29, 30, 33]. When the virus responsible for the outbreak is identified, all suspected cases should be considered as high risk and meet the case definition and exposure risks (Tables 2 and3) for better management of the epidemic. There is no carrier state.Laboratory diagnosis can only be performed in a specialized laboratory. First, there is no commercial reagent and, secondly, the samples represent an extreme biohazard that must be handled under containment conditions of the highest level (biosafety level 4 – BSL-4; Figure 3).Table 2

Bottom Line: The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent.It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease.The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR 216, Mother and Child Facing Tropical Diseases, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Cotonou, Bénin ; Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent. This review aims to describe the 27 manifestations of Ebola virus that arose after its discovery in 1976. It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease. The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus