Limits...
Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa: the beginnings of a tragic saga.

Chippaux JP - J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent.It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease.The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR 216, Mother and Child Facing Tropical Diseases, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Cotonou, Bénin ; Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent. This review aims to describe the 27 manifestations of Ebola virus that arose after its discovery in 1976. It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease. The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ultrastructural morphology of Ebola virus virion (image by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Cynthia Goldsmith).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197285&req=5

Fig1: Ultrastructural morphology of Ebola virus virion (image by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Cynthia Goldsmith).

Mentions: Ebola viruses are RNA viruses whose genome encodes seven proteins[4, 5]. They are of filamentary form, sometimes branched, with a diameter of 80 nm and a length of up to 14,000 nm (Figure 1). The protein shell encloses the tubular helical nucleocapsid. Surface transmembrane glycoproteins of the virion provide the binding and fusion with the cell membrane, and penetration into the cell. Glycoproteins are responsible for almost all the virulence, even though it does not explain all the pathogenicity[6]. Monocytes, particularly macrophages, are the first cells infected, triggering apoptosis in lymphocytes[7]. Within three days, the virions invade the endothelial system[4, 5]. The inhibition of the immune response, including reduced production of interferon, favors the rapid spread of the virus in the body[8, 9].Figure 1


Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa: the beginnings of a tragic saga.

Chippaux JP - J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis (2014)

Ultrastructural morphology of Ebola virus virion (image by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Cynthia Goldsmith).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197285&req=5

Fig1: Ultrastructural morphology of Ebola virus virion (image by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Cynthia Goldsmith).
Mentions: Ebola viruses are RNA viruses whose genome encodes seven proteins[4, 5]. They are of filamentary form, sometimes branched, with a diameter of 80 nm and a length of up to 14,000 nm (Figure 1). The protein shell encloses the tubular helical nucleocapsid. Surface transmembrane glycoproteins of the virion provide the binding and fusion with the cell membrane, and penetration into the cell. Glycoproteins are responsible for almost all the virulence, even though it does not explain all the pathogenicity[6]. Monocytes, particularly macrophages, are the first cells infected, triggering apoptosis in lymphocytes[7]. Within three days, the virions invade the endothelial system[4, 5]. The inhibition of the immune response, including reduced production of interferon, favors the rapid spread of the virus in the body[8, 9].Figure 1

Bottom Line: The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent.It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease.The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR 216, Mother and Child Facing Tropical Diseases, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Cotonou, Bénin ; Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent. This review aims to describe the 27 manifestations of Ebola virus that arose after its discovery in 1976. It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease. The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus