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Insecticide resistance and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus populations from Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Choi KS, Christian R, Nardini L, Wood OR, Agubuzo E, Muleba M, Munyati S, Makuwaza A, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Hunt RH, Coetzee M - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Bottom Line: No significant difference was observed between the clades.Resistance intensity tests showed high survival rates after 8-hrs continuous exposure to pyrethroids but exposure to bendiocarb gave the same results as the susceptible control.No evidence was found to suggest that the clades are markers of biologically separate populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wits Research Institute for Malaria, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. kwangshik@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Two mitochondrial DNA clades have been described in Anopheles funestus populations from southern Africa. Clade I is common across the continent while clade II is known only from Mozambique and Madagascar. The specific biological status of these clades is at present unknown. We investigated the possible role that each clade might play in the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and the insecticide resistance status of An. funestus from Zimbabwe and Zambia.

Methods: Mosquitoes were collected inside houses from Nchelenge District, Zambia and Honde Valley, Zimbabwe in 2013 and 2014. WHO susceptibility tests, synergist assays and resistance intensity tests were conducted on wild females and progeny of wild females. ELISA was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Specimens were identified to species and mtDNA clades using standard molecular methods.

Results: The Zimbabwean samples were all clade I while the Zambian population comprised 80% clade I and 20% clade II in both years of collection. ELISA tests gave an overall infection rate of 2.3% and 2.1% in 2013, and 3.5% and 9.2% in 2014 for Zimbabwe and Zambia respectively. No significant difference was observed between the clades. All populations were resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates but susceptible to organochlorines and organophosphates. Synergist assays indicated that pyrethroid resistance is mediated by cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases. Resistance intensity tests showed high survival rates after 8-hrs continuous exposure to pyrethroids but exposure to bendiocarb gave the same results as the susceptible control.

Conclusions: This is the first record of An. funestus mtDNA clade II occurring in Zambia. No evidence was found to suggest that the clades are markers of biologically separate populations. The ability of An. funestus to withstand prolonged exposure to pyrethroids has serious implications for the use of these insecticides, either through LLINs or IRS, in southern Africa in general and resistance management strategies should be urgently implemented.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Insecticide resistance intensity tests where susceptible (FANG) and Zimbabwe resistantAn. funestuswere exposed to 0.05%deltamethrin (FuZim-D) and lambda-cyhalothrin (FuZim-L) for 8 hours.
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Fig2: Insecticide resistance intensity tests where susceptible (FANG) and Zimbabwe resistantAn. funestuswere exposed to 0.05%deltamethrin (FuZim-D) and lambda-cyhalothrin (FuZim-L) for 8 hours.

Mentions: The results are shown in Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and Table 4. Data points in Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are overall percentage knock-downs across all replicates. Both Zimbabwe clade I and Zambian clades I and II showed similar results for 8-hr exposures to deltamethrin that were significantly different to the FANG results (ANOVA: df = 1; P < 0.01 in all cases) (Figures 2, 4 and 5). There were sufficient numbers of Zimbabwe F1s to carry out tests on lambda-cyhalothrin and the results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the responses to this insecticide compared with deltamethrin over the entire 8 hr monitoring period (ANOVA: df = 1; F = 3.33; P = 0.08), although the rate of knockdown induced by lambda-cyhalothrin was significantly higher than that induced by deltamethrin for the period 60 min to 8 hrs (ANOVA: df = 1; F = 6.55; P = 0.02) (Figure 2).Figure 2


Insecticide resistance and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus populations from Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Choi KS, Christian R, Nardini L, Wood OR, Agubuzo E, Muleba M, Munyati S, Makuwaza A, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Hunt RH, Coetzee M - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Insecticide resistance intensity tests where susceptible (FANG) and Zimbabwe resistantAn. funestuswere exposed to 0.05%deltamethrin (FuZim-D) and lambda-cyhalothrin (FuZim-L) for 8 hours.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197278&req=5

Fig2: Insecticide resistance intensity tests where susceptible (FANG) and Zimbabwe resistantAn. funestuswere exposed to 0.05%deltamethrin (FuZim-D) and lambda-cyhalothrin (FuZim-L) for 8 hours.
Mentions: The results are shown in Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and Table 4. Data points in Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are overall percentage knock-downs across all replicates. Both Zimbabwe clade I and Zambian clades I and II showed similar results for 8-hr exposures to deltamethrin that were significantly different to the FANG results (ANOVA: df = 1; P < 0.01 in all cases) (Figures 2, 4 and 5). There were sufficient numbers of Zimbabwe F1s to carry out tests on lambda-cyhalothrin and the results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the responses to this insecticide compared with deltamethrin over the entire 8 hr monitoring period (ANOVA: df = 1; F = 3.33; P = 0.08), although the rate of knockdown induced by lambda-cyhalothrin was significantly higher than that induced by deltamethrin for the period 60 min to 8 hrs (ANOVA: df = 1; F = 6.55; P = 0.02) (Figure 2).Figure 2

Bottom Line: No significant difference was observed between the clades.Resistance intensity tests showed high survival rates after 8-hrs continuous exposure to pyrethroids but exposure to bendiocarb gave the same results as the susceptible control.No evidence was found to suggest that the clades are markers of biologically separate populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wits Research Institute for Malaria, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. kwangshik@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Two mitochondrial DNA clades have been described in Anopheles funestus populations from southern Africa. Clade I is common across the continent while clade II is known only from Mozambique and Madagascar. The specific biological status of these clades is at present unknown. We investigated the possible role that each clade might play in the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and the insecticide resistance status of An. funestus from Zimbabwe and Zambia.

Methods: Mosquitoes were collected inside houses from Nchelenge District, Zambia and Honde Valley, Zimbabwe in 2013 and 2014. WHO susceptibility tests, synergist assays and resistance intensity tests were conducted on wild females and progeny of wild females. ELISA was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Specimens were identified to species and mtDNA clades using standard molecular methods.

Results: The Zimbabwean samples were all clade I while the Zambian population comprised 80% clade I and 20% clade II in both years of collection. ELISA tests gave an overall infection rate of 2.3% and 2.1% in 2013, and 3.5% and 9.2% in 2014 for Zimbabwe and Zambia respectively. No significant difference was observed between the clades. All populations were resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates but susceptible to organochlorines and organophosphates. Synergist assays indicated that pyrethroid resistance is mediated by cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases. Resistance intensity tests showed high survival rates after 8-hrs continuous exposure to pyrethroids but exposure to bendiocarb gave the same results as the susceptible control.

Conclusions: This is the first record of An. funestus mtDNA clade II occurring in Zambia. No evidence was found to suggest that the clades are markers of biologically separate populations. The ability of An. funestus to withstand prolonged exposure to pyrethroids has serious implications for the use of these insecticides, either through LLINs or IRS, in southern Africa in general and resistance management strategies should be urgently implemented.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus