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Evolution of multipartite mitochondrial genomes in the booklice of the genus Liposcelis (Psocoptera).

Chen SC, Wei DD, Shao R, Shi JX, Dou W, Wang JJ - BMC Genomics (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that these two species of booklice also have multipartite mt genomes, like L. bostrychophila, with the mt genes we identified on two chromosomes.Numerous pseudo mt genes and non-coding regions were found in the mt genomes of these two booklice, and account for 30% and 10% respectively of the entire length we sequenced.L. entomophila and L. paeta differ substantially from each other and from L. bostrychophila in gene content and gene arrangement in their mt chromosomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, P, R, China. jjwang7008@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genus Liposcelis (Psocoptera: Troctomorpha) has more than 120 species with a worldwide distribution and they pose a risk for global food security. The organization of mitochondrial (mt) genomes varies between the two species of booklice investigated in the genus Liposcelis. Liposcelis decolor has its mt genes on a single chromosome, like most other insects; L. bostrychophila, however, has a multipartite mt genome with genes on two chromosomes.

Results: To understand how multipartite mt genome organization evolved in the genus Liposcelis, we sequenced the mt genomes of L. entomophila and L. paeta in this study. We found that these two species of booklice also have multipartite mt genomes, like L. bostrychophila, with the mt genes we identified on two chromosomes. Numerous pseudo mt genes and non-coding regions were found in the mt genomes of these two booklice, and account for 30% and 10% respectively of the entire length we sequenced. In L. bostrychophila, the mt genes are distributed approximately equally between the two chromosomes. In L. entomophila and L. paeta, however, one mt chromosome has most of the genes we identified whereas the other chromosome has largely pseudogenes and non-coding regions. L. entomophila and L. paeta differ substantially from each other and from L. bostrychophila in gene content and gene arrangement in their mt chromosomes.

Conclusions: Our results indicate unusually fast evolution in mt genome organization in the booklice of the genus Liposcelis, and reveal different patterns of mt genome fragmentation among L. bostrychophila, L. entomophila and L. paeta.

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PCR amplicons from mitochondrial DNA ofLiposcelis entomophila(A) andL. paeta(B). Lane M: 1 kb marker (Biomed). “E1-E2”, the product of PCR with primers E1 and E2, etc. Details of primers are in Additional files 1 and 2.
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Fig1: PCR amplicons from mitochondrial DNA ofLiposcelis entomophila(A) andL. paeta(B). Lane M: 1 kb marker (Biomed). “E1-E2”, the product of PCR with primers E1 and E2, etc. Details of primers are in Additional files 1 and 2.

Mentions: The mt genome of L. entomophila consists of two circular chromosomes, I (GenBank Accession No. KF649223) and II (GenBank Accession No. KF649224). Chromosome I, 11,599 bp long, was assembled from two overlapping PCR amplicons, 5,634 bp (E1 - E2) and 6,413 bp (E3 - E4), respectively (Figures 1A and 2A). These two amplicons overlap by 64 bp in cox1 and 284 bp in cob. The other two amplicons, E5 - E6 (10,231 bp) and E7 - E8 (3,353 bp), were assembled to form chromosome II, 12,675 bp long; these two amplicons overlap by 347 bp in rrnL and 470 bp in NCRII-3 (Figures 1A and 2A). Totally, 28 of the 37 mt genes typical of bilateral animals and 15 pseudogenes were found in the two mt chromosomes of L. entomophila. Chromosome I contains 11 protein-coding genes (atp6, cob, cox1-cox3, and nad1-nad6) and three pseudogenes. Chromosome II contains two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 14 tRNA genes (trnD, trnF, trnI, trnK, trnL1, trnL2, trnM, trnP, trnQ, trnR, trnS1, trnS2, trnT and trnY) and a PCG (atp8) (Figure 2A and Additional file 6). Additionally, 12 pseudogenes were also found on this chromosome (Figure 2A and Additional file 7).Figure 1


Evolution of multipartite mitochondrial genomes in the booklice of the genus Liposcelis (Psocoptera).

Chen SC, Wei DD, Shao R, Shi JX, Dou W, Wang JJ - BMC Genomics (2014)

PCR amplicons from mitochondrial DNA ofLiposcelis entomophila(A) andL. paeta(B). Lane M: 1 kb marker (Biomed). “E1-E2”, the product of PCR with primers E1 and E2, etc. Details of primers are in Additional files 1 and 2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197233&req=5

Fig1: PCR amplicons from mitochondrial DNA ofLiposcelis entomophila(A) andL. paeta(B). Lane M: 1 kb marker (Biomed). “E1-E2”, the product of PCR with primers E1 and E2, etc. Details of primers are in Additional files 1 and 2.
Mentions: The mt genome of L. entomophila consists of two circular chromosomes, I (GenBank Accession No. KF649223) and II (GenBank Accession No. KF649224). Chromosome I, 11,599 bp long, was assembled from two overlapping PCR amplicons, 5,634 bp (E1 - E2) and 6,413 bp (E3 - E4), respectively (Figures 1A and 2A). These two amplicons overlap by 64 bp in cox1 and 284 bp in cob. The other two amplicons, E5 - E6 (10,231 bp) and E7 - E8 (3,353 bp), were assembled to form chromosome II, 12,675 bp long; these two amplicons overlap by 347 bp in rrnL and 470 bp in NCRII-3 (Figures 1A and 2A). Totally, 28 of the 37 mt genes typical of bilateral animals and 15 pseudogenes were found in the two mt chromosomes of L. entomophila. Chromosome I contains 11 protein-coding genes (atp6, cob, cox1-cox3, and nad1-nad6) and three pseudogenes. Chromosome II contains two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 14 tRNA genes (trnD, trnF, trnI, trnK, trnL1, trnL2, trnM, trnP, trnQ, trnR, trnS1, trnS2, trnT and trnY) and a PCG (atp8) (Figure 2A and Additional file 6). Additionally, 12 pseudogenes were also found on this chromosome (Figure 2A and Additional file 7).Figure 1

Bottom Line: We found that these two species of booklice also have multipartite mt genomes, like L. bostrychophila, with the mt genes we identified on two chromosomes.Numerous pseudo mt genes and non-coding regions were found in the mt genomes of these two booklice, and account for 30% and 10% respectively of the entire length we sequenced.L. entomophila and L. paeta differ substantially from each other and from L. bostrychophila in gene content and gene arrangement in their mt chromosomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, P, R, China. jjwang7008@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genus Liposcelis (Psocoptera: Troctomorpha) has more than 120 species with a worldwide distribution and they pose a risk for global food security. The organization of mitochondrial (mt) genomes varies between the two species of booklice investigated in the genus Liposcelis. Liposcelis decolor has its mt genes on a single chromosome, like most other insects; L. bostrychophila, however, has a multipartite mt genome with genes on two chromosomes.

Results: To understand how multipartite mt genome organization evolved in the genus Liposcelis, we sequenced the mt genomes of L. entomophila and L. paeta in this study. We found that these two species of booklice also have multipartite mt genomes, like L. bostrychophila, with the mt genes we identified on two chromosomes. Numerous pseudo mt genes and non-coding regions were found in the mt genomes of these two booklice, and account for 30% and 10% respectively of the entire length we sequenced. In L. bostrychophila, the mt genes are distributed approximately equally between the two chromosomes. In L. entomophila and L. paeta, however, one mt chromosome has most of the genes we identified whereas the other chromosome has largely pseudogenes and non-coding regions. L. entomophila and L. paeta differ substantially from each other and from L. bostrychophila in gene content and gene arrangement in their mt chromosomes.

Conclusions: Our results indicate unusually fast evolution in mt genome organization in the booklice of the genus Liposcelis, and reveal different patterns of mt genome fragmentation among L. bostrychophila, L. entomophila and L. paeta.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus