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Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

Kandari LS, Yadav HR, Thakur AK, Kandari T - Springerplus (2014)

Bottom Line: It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members.The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly.Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Natural Resource Management and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box # 337, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Consumption of chat by different sector of society.
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Fig5: Consumption of chat by different sector of society.

Mentions: It is observed that chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest numbers of consumers were found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers (Figure 5). The leaves intake in general, negatively affects the working ability and capacity of the users. In fact, its consumers have negative health effect with positive income effect. As, such, policy measures required to control its cultivation will need to address both supply and demand issues in relation to its negative impact on the society. Chewing of leaves has been practiced for social and psychological reasons for many centuries and its use has gradually expanded worldwide. Both socioeconomic and agro-ecological reasons have contributed for its expansion and production thereby increasing market opportunities (Figure 6). Production of the plant is mainly located close to the road network and on farms with irrigation facilities. It has assumed the status of cash crop with an assured income. The profitability of its production is, therefore, considered as the primary reason by 75% of the farmers for expansion of cultivation in the area. The income generation from intercropping with maize is another added advantage of high returns as compared to mono-cropping of agriculture. Income from maize mono-cropping is less as compared to intercropping system, which provides 3 times higher return. Due to assured and higher returns from cultivation of the plant as well as low income from other crops or mono-crops, many farmers (having small landholdings) have expanded its cultivation in their fields. The other factors contributing to the expansion of this crop includes low risk and low labor intensive compared to cereal crops. Ownership of chat area under cultivation is considered as one of the important indicators of prosperity when a man proposes marriage to a woman in this region. The production of this crop has expanded at the expense of important rainfed cereal crops like maize, sorghum, coffee etc. and serves as a good substitute, as it is less vulnerable to drought. The cultivation of cereals is expensive, as it requires fertilizers and irrigation. The crop being perennial, farmers in the area considered this as a way to ensure land entitlement because annual cropland is more affected by land redistribution than land under perennial crops.Figure 5


Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

Kandari LS, Yadav HR, Thakur AK, Kandari T - Springerplus (2014)

Consumption of chat by different sector of society.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197201&req=5

Fig5: Consumption of chat by different sector of society.
Mentions: It is observed that chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest numbers of consumers were found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers (Figure 5). The leaves intake in general, negatively affects the working ability and capacity of the users. In fact, its consumers have negative health effect with positive income effect. As, such, policy measures required to control its cultivation will need to address both supply and demand issues in relation to its negative impact on the society. Chewing of leaves has been practiced for social and psychological reasons for many centuries and its use has gradually expanded worldwide. Both socioeconomic and agro-ecological reasons have contributed for its expansion and production thereby increasing market opportunities (Figure 6). Production of the plant is mainly located close to the road network and on farms with irrigation facilities. It has assumed the status of cash crop with an assured income. The profitability of its production is, therefore, considered as the primary reason by 75% of the farmers for expansion of cultivation in the area. The income generation from intercropping with maize is another added advantage of high returns as compared to mono-cropping of agriculture. Income from maize mono-cropping is less as compared to intercropping system, which provides 3 times higher return. Due to assured and higher returns from cultivation of the plant as well as low income from other crops or mono-crops, many farmers (having small landholdings) have expanded its cultivation in their fields. The other factors contributing to the expansion of this crop includes low risk and low labor intensive compared to cereal crops. Ownership of chat area under cultivation is considered as one of the important indicators of prosperity when a man proposes marriage to a woman in this region. The production of this crop has expanded at the expense of important rainfed cereal crops like maize, sorghum, coffee etc. and serves as a good substitute, as it is less vulnerable to drought. The cultivation of cereals is expensive, as it requires fertilizers and irrigation. The crop being perennial, farmers in the area considered this as a way to ensure land entitlement because annual cropland is more affected by land redistribution than land under perennial crops.Figure 5

Bottom Line: It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members.The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly.Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Natural Resource Management and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box # 337, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus