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Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

Kandari LS, Yadav HR, Thakur AK, Kandari T - Springerplus (2014)

Bottom Line: It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members.The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly.Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Natural Resource Management and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box # 337, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Intercropping of chat with Sorghum.
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Fig2: Intercropping of chat with Sorghum.

Mentions: Ethiopia is the world’s largest producer of chat which has recently become the fastest growing export commodity. The history of domestication and introduction of this crop in Ethiopia is not known. According to the folklore, it was first introduced in Harar from where it spread to rest of the country (Getahun and Krikorian 1973). Harar is located in eastern Ethiopia. The main inhabitants of this region are Oromia tribal communities. About a third of the production is exported to neighboring countries like Djibouti and Somalia. However, it is largely produced, marketed and consumed within the country. Harar is a business centre where the plant is grown at a wide range of altitudes, soil types and climatic conditions (Alles et al. 1961; Beguinot 1939; Beitter 1900; Brooke 1960). Cultivation of this crop has helped to a good extent to reduce poverty from the region. The price of chat fluctuates seasonally according to the quality and quantity supplied. The price is higher in the dry periods due to short supply but decreases during the rainy season (from April to September), when the supply is more. Currently, chat crop is grown in about 94,330 ha of land nationwide and accounts for about one third of the area under coffee (Anonymous 2000). The bulk of the chat produced in Harar region is of good quality and is in great demand in both domestic as well as in export markets. It is now a major source of foreign exchange and occupies second place in export after coffee. In 1998–99, the crop accounted for 13.4% of Ethiopia’s export earnings and was the country’s second largest export items that year (CSA 2000). Consumption of chat leaves is common in Middle-East Asian countries like Yemen, Saudi Arabia and East African countries like, Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Uganda and Tanzania. Normally chat saplings are first planted around the homestead and later expanded to rest of the farmland. Cultivation of chat occupies 55% of agricultural land and is largely intercropped either with maize or with sorghum (Figure 2).Figure 2


Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

Kandari LS, Yadav HR, Thakur AK, Kandari T - Springerplus (2014)

Intercropping of chat with Sorghum.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4197201&req=5

Fig2: Intercropping of chat with Sorghum.
Mentions: Ethiopia is the world’s largest producer of chat which has recently become the fastest growing export commodity. The history of domestication and introduction of this crop in Ethiopia is not known. According to the folklore, it was first introduced in Harar from where it spread to rest of the country (Getahun and Krikorian 1973). Harar is located in eastern Ethiopia. The main inhabitants of this region are Oromia tribal communities. About a third of the production is exported to neighboring countries like Djibouti and Somalia. However, it is largely produced, marketed and consumed within the country. Harar is a business centre where the plant is grown at a wide range of altitudes, soil types and climatic conditions (Alles et al. 1961; Beguinot 1939; Beitter 1900; Brooke 1960). Cultivation of this crop has helped to a good extent to reduce poverty from the region. The price of chat fluctuates seasonally according to the quality and quantity supplied. The price is higher in the dry periods due to short supply but decreases during the rainy season (from April to September), when the supply is more. Currently, chat crop is grown in about 94,330 ha of land nationwide and accounts for about one third of the area under coffee (Anonymous 2000). The bulk of the chat produced in Harar region is of good quality and is in great demand in both domestic as well as in export markets. It is now a major source of foreign exchange and occupies second place in export after coffee. In 1998–99, the crop accounted for 13.4% of Ethiopia’s export earnings and was the country’s second largest export items that year (CSA 2000). Consumption of chat leaves is common in Middle-East Asian countries like Yemen, Saudi Arabia and East African countries like, Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Uganda and Tanzania. Normally chat saplings are first planted around the homestead and later expanded to rest of the farmland. Cultivation of chat occupies 55% of agricultural land and is largely intercropped either with maize or with sorghum (Figure 2).Figure 2

Bottom Line: It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members.The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly.Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Natural Resource Management and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box # 337, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus