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Prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules before and after implementation of the universal salt iodization program in mainland China from 1985 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Zhao W, Han C, Shi X, Xiong C, Sun J, Shan Z, Teng W - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: All analyses were performed with Stata 11.0 and SPSS 17.0.Egger's test of three independent categories revealed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.101, 0.148 and 0.113, respectively).Thus, salt iodization standardizations should be set according to local conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We comprehensively estimated the prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules (TNs) before and after the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) program in mainland China and provided information for creating effective health policies.

Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP databases were searched for relevant studies from Jan 1985 to Feb 2014. Data from eligible citations were extracted by two independent reviewers. All analyses were performed with Stata 11.0 and SPSS 17.0.

Results: Eligible articles (N = 31; 4 in English and 27 in Chinese) included 52 studies (15 about goiter rates made before 1996 and 14 afterwards, and 23 about TNs). Our meta-analysis suggests a pooled prevalence for goiter before and after 1996 and for TNs of 22.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 30.3%), 12.6% (95% CI: 9.4%, 15.8%) and 22.7% (95% CI: 18.3%, 27.0%), respectively. Egger's test of three independent categories revealed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.101, 0.148 and 0.113, respectively).

Conclusions: The prevalence of goiter was reduced by almost half after 1996 in mainland China, so the USI program was considered beneficial. However, subgroup analysis suggests that both insufficient and excess iodine may be associated with goiter. The prevalence of goiter and TNs increased significantly after 2002, suggesting a risk of excessive iodine intake. Thus, salt iodization standardizations should be set according to local conditions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Forest plot displaying the pooled goiter prevalence in mainland China after 1996.
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pone-0109549-g003: Forest plot displaying the pooled goiter prevalence in mainland China after 1996.

Mentions: As shown in Figs 2 and 3, the pooled prevalence of goiter before 1996 was 22.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 30.3%), with the actual numbers ranging from 3.11 to 50.89%; after 1996, the pooled prevalence, 12.6% (95% CI: 9.4%, 15.8%) in the range of 4.27–30.31%, was significantly lower compared with the prevalence prior to 1996 (χ2 = 532.56, p<0.001). Figure 4 shows a pooled prevalence of 22.7% (95%CI: 18.3%, 27.0%) for TNs with individual studies ranging from 10.12–46.56%. Individual disease conditions of the provinces and municipalities are shown in the maps in Figs 5–7.


Prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules before and after implementation of the universal salt iodization program in mainland China from 1985 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Zhao W, Han C, Shi X, Xiong C, Sun J, Shan Z, Teng W - PLoS ONE (2014)

Forest plot displaying the pooled goiter prevalence in mainland China after 1996.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196906&req=5

pone-0109549-g003: Forest plot displaying the pooled goiter prevalence in mainland China after 1996.
Mentions: As shown in Figs 2 and 3, the pooled prevalence of goiter before 1996 was 22.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 30.3%), with the actual numbers ranging from 3.11 to 50.89%; after 1996, the pooled prevalence, 12.6% (95% CI: 9.4%, 15.8%) in the range of 4.27–30.31%, was significantly lower compared with the prevalence prior to 1996 (χ2 = 532.56, p<0.001). Figure 4 shows a pooled prevalence of 22.7% (95%CI: 18.3%, 27.0%) for TNs with individual studies ranging from 10.12–46.56%. Individual disease conditions of the provinces and municipalities are shown in the maps in Figs 5–7.

Bottom Line: All analyses were performed with Stata 11.0 and SPSS 17.0.Egger's test of three independent categories revealed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.101, 0.148 and 0.113, respectively).Thus, salt iodization standardizations should be set according to local conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We comprehensively estimated the prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules (TNs) before and after the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) program in mainland China and provided information for creating effective health policies.

Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP databases were searched for relevant studies from Jan 1985 to Feb 2014. Data from eligible citations were extracted by two independent reviewers. All analyses were performed with Stata 11.0 and SPSS 17.0.

Results: Eligible articles (N = 31; 4 in English and 27 in Chinese) included 52 studies (15 about goiter rates made before 1996 and 14 afterwards, and 23 about TNs). Our meta-analysis suggests a pooled prevalence for goiter before and after 1996 and for TNs of 22.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 30.3%), 12.6% (95% CI: 9.4%, 15.8%) and 22.7% (95% CI: 18.3%, 27.0%), respectively. Egger's test of three independent categories revealed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.101, 0.148 and 0.113, respectively).

Conclusions: The prevalence of goiter was reduced by almost half after 1996 in mainland China, so the USI program was considered beneficial. However, subgroup analysis suggests that both insufficient and excess iodine may be associated with goiter. The prevalence of goiter and TNs increased significantly after 2002, suggesting a risk of excessive iodine intake. Thus, salt iodization standardizations should be set according to local conditions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus