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Resilience to trauma in the two largest cities of Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

Vilete L, Figueira I, Andreoli SB, Ribeiro W, Quintana MI, de Jesus Mari J, Coutinho ES - BMC Psychiatry (2014)

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to identify predisposing factors and possible mechanisms associated with resilience to traumatic events in the general population.Our findings suggest that the absence of parental mental disease (IDR = 1.35; p = 0.07) also predisposes individuals to positive adaptation.This study provides results that help to identify vulnerable groups and protective factors that may lead to a positive adaptation following traumatic experiences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Av: Venceslau=Brás 71 - fundos - Botafogo CEP, Rio de Janeiro 22290-140, Brazil. lilianevilete@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Resilience is a dynamic process involving the interaction between intrapsychic and social factors of risk and protection. For resilience to be recognized there must be a significant threat to the individual, such as a traumatic event, and a good quality of adjustment. The aim of this study was to identify predisposing factors and possible mechanisms associated with resilience to traumatic events in the general population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a random sample, aged 15-75 years, living in the two largest cities in Brazil, who were exposed to trauma (N = 3,231). Positive adaptation to trauma was defined as the lifetime absence of anxiety (including posttraumatic stress disorder), depression and alcohol related disorders in the presence of at least one traumatic event. Logistic regression models predicting resilience were used to estimate the incidence density ratio. This measure expresses the extent to which the rate of resilience differs from the exposed group to the non-exposed group. Moreover, we explored the relationship between positive/negative affect and resilience, using linear regression models.

Results: Male gender was a predisposing factor to positive adaptation (incidence density ratio [IDR] = 1.34; p < 0.001). There was an inverse linear relationship between childhood violence and resilience (IDR = 0.67; 0.53; 0.19; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the absence of parental mental disease (IDR = 1.35; p = 0.07) also predisposes individuals to positive adaptation.

Conclusions: This study provides results that help to identify vulnerable groups and protective factors that may lead to a positive adaptation following traumatic experiences.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), number of different types of trauma and resilience. Average scores of PA and NA according to combined categories of the number of different types of trauma and resilience (adjusted by gender, age, affect, parental mental disorder and childhood trauma).
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Fig2: Positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), number of different types of trauma and resilience. Average scores of PA and NA according to combined categories of the number of different types of trauma and resilience (adjusted by gender, age, affect, parental mental disorder and childhood trauma).

Mentions: As some protective effects may only play their role if activated by risk or in response to adversity, we investigated the possible influence of traumatic experience on positive affect, besides the expected emergence of negative affect. Figure 1 presents the average scores of positive affect for the combination of trauma intensity and resilience, controlling for negative affect, gender, age, parental mental disorder and childhood trauma. Figure 1 shows the same analysis for negative affect. It seems that the presence of trauma influences positive affect by increasing its score in a linear pattern. It is also important to note that within each category of trauma intensity, resilience is associated with higher positive affect. Conversely, negative affect shows a different pattern. Although its average score also increases with trauma intensity, resilient individuals are associated with lower negative affect. We found the same pattern with the variable diversity of trauma, i.e., exposure to different types of trauma, as shown in Figure 2. These figures were based on data presented in Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7.Figure 1


Resilience to trauma in the two largest cities of Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

Vilete L, Figueira I, Andreoli SB, Ribeiro W, Quintana MI, de Jesus Mari J, Coutinho ES - BMC Psychiatry (2014)

Positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), number of different types of trauma and resilience. Average scores of PA and NA according to combined categories of the number of different types of trauma and resilience (adjusted by gender, age, affect, parental mental disorder and childhood trauma).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196199&req=5

Fig2: Positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), number of different types of trauma and resilience. Average scores of PA and NA according to combined categories of the number of different types of trauma and resilience (adjusted by gender, age, affect, parental mental disorder and childhood trauma).
Mentions: As some protective effects may only play their role if activated by risk or in response to adversity, we investigated the possible influence of traumatic experience on positive affect, besides the expected emergence of negative affect. Figure 1 presents the average scores of positive affect for the combination of trauma intensity and resilience, controlling for negative affect, gender, age, parental mental disorder and childhood trauma. Figure 1 shows the same analysis for negative affect. It seems that the presence of trauma influences positive affect by increasing its score in a linear pattern. It is also important to note that within each category of trauma intensity, resilience is associated with higher positive affect. Conversely, negative affect shows a different pattern. Although its average score also increases with trauma intensity, resilient individuals are associated with lower negative affect. We found the same pattern with the variable diversity of trauma, i.e., exposure to different types of trauma, as shown in Figure 2. These figures were based on data presented in Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7.Figure 1

Bottom Line: The aim of this study was to identify predisposing factors and possible mechanisms associated with resilience to traumatic events in the general population.Our findings suggest that the absence of parental mental disease (IDR = 1.35; p = 0.07) also predisposes individuals to positive adaptation.This study provides results that help to identify vulnerable groups and protective factors that may lead to a positive adaptation following traumatic experiences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Av: Venceslau=Brás 71 - fundos - Botafogo CEP, Rio de Janeiro 22290-140, Brazil. lilianevilete@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Resilience is a dynamic process involving the interaction between intrapsychic and social factors of risk and protection. For resilience to be recognized there must be a significant threat to the individual, such as a traumatic event, and a good quality of adjustment. The aim of this study was to identify predisposing factors and possible mechanisms associated with resilience to traumatic events in the general population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a random sample, aged 15-75 years, living in the two largest cities in Brazil, who were exposed to trauma (N = 3,231). Positive adaptation to trauma was defined as the lifetime absence of anxiety (including posttraumatic stress disorder), depression and alcohol related disorders in the presence of at least one traumatic event. Logistic regression models predicting resilience were used to estimate the incidence density ratio. This measure expresses the extent to which the rate of resilience differs from the exposed group to the non-exposed group. Moreover, we explored the relationship between positive/negative affect and resilience, using linear regression models.

Results: Male gender was a predisposing factor to positive adaptation (incidence density ratio [IDR] = 1.34; p < 0.001). There was an inverse linear relationship between childhood violence and resilience (IDR = 0.67; 0.53; 0.19; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the absence of parental mental disease (IDR = 1.35; p = 0.07) also predisposes individuals to positive adaptation.

Conclusions: This study provides results that help to identify vulnerable groups and protective factors that may lead to a positive adaptation following traumatic experiences.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus