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Temperature-dependent appearance of forensically useful flies on carcasses.

Matuszewski S, Szafałowicz M, Grzywacz A - Int. J. Legal Med. (2013)

Bottom Line: Adult and oviposition PAI of Calliphora vomitoria and adult PAI of Hydrotaea pilipes were not related to temperature.Adult and oviposition PAI of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia caesar responded similarly, with an abrupt and large increase in a narrow range of low temperatures and no response in a broad range of high temperatures.Probably, different mechanisms form the basis for the response of PAI to temperature in flies colonizing carcasses shortly after death and flies colonizing carcasses later in the decomposition process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Criminalistics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Św. Marcin 90, 61-809, Poznań, Poland, szymmat@amu.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Flies are frequently used for postmortem interval (PMI) estimations. These estimates are usually based on the age of larval or pupal specimens. However, the age defines only the minimum PMI. In order to move forensic entomology further, a method useful for the estimation of an interval preceding insect appearance on a corpse called the pre-appearance interval (PAI) is needed. Recently, it was demonstrated that the PAI of several carrion beetles is closely related to the temperature prevailing throughout this interval. Hence, it was postulated to estimate PAI from temperature. In order to check premises for using this approach with flies, a test of the relationship between adult or oviposition PAI and temperature was made for nine species of European flies. Data on PAI originated from pig carcasses decomposing under various temperatures. Adult PAI of Hydrotaea dentipes, Hydrotaea ignava, Hydrotaea similis, Phormia regina, and Stearibia nigriceps and oviposition PAI of S. nigriceps were exponentially related to temperature. Only S. nigriceps revealed a close relationship, demonstrating solid premises for PAI estimation from temperature alone. Adult and oviposition PAI of Calliphora vomitoria and adult PAI of Hydrotaea pilipes were not related to temperature. Adult and oviposition PAI of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia caesar responded similarly, with an abrupt and large increase in a narrow range of low temperatures and no response in a broad range of high temperatures. Probably, different mechanisms form the basis for the response of PAI to temperature in flies colonizing carcasses shortly after death and flies colonizing carcasses later in the decomposition process.

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The PAI and ground-level temperatures averaged for the duration of PAI for L. caesar and L. sericata
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Fig4: The PAI and ground-level temperatures averaged for the duration of PAI for L. caesar and L. sericata

Mentions: Adult and oviposition PAI of L. caesar and L. sericata responded similarly to temperature (Fig. 4). In a high temperature range, PAI was more or less constant and unrelated to temperature (Fig. 4). Under daily average temperatures above 17 °C, the oviposition of L. caesar was always recorded within the first 12 h postmortem, whereas in the case of L. sericata, it started, in each case, with temperatures above 18 °C within the first 35 h after death (Fig. 4). In a low temperature range, adult and oviposition PAI of L. caesar responded erratically to the temperature with some cases near the minimum PAI and some cases largely above the minimum PAI (Fig. 4). In the case of L. sericata, the response of PAI to low temperature was similar, although less erratic (Fig. 4). For both species and both kinds of PAI, the low temperature change in PAI may be represented by a near-vertical line (Fig. 4).Fig. 4


Temperature-dependent appearance of forensically useful flies on carcasses.

Matuszewski S, Szafałowicz M, Grzywacz A - Int. J. Legal Med. (2013)

The PAI and ground-level temperatures averaged for the duration of PAI for L. caesar and L. sericata
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196138&req=5

Fig4: The PAI and ground-level temperatures averaged for the duration of PAI for L. caesar and L. sericata
Mentions: Adult and oviposition PAI of L. caesar and L. sericata responded similarly to temperature (Fig. 4). In a high temperature range, PAI was more or less constant and unrelated to temperature (Fig. 4). Under daily average temperatures above 17 °C, the oviposition of L. caesar was always recorded within the first 12 h postmortem, whereas in the case of L. sericata, it started, in each case, with temperatures above 18 °C within the first 35 h after death (Fig. 4). In a low temperature range, adult and oviposition PAI of L. caesar responded erratically to the temperature with some cases near the minimum PAI and some cases largely above the minimum PAI (Fig. 4). In the case of L. sericata, the response of PAI to low temperature was similar, although less erratic (Fig. 4). For both species and both kinds of PAI, the low temperature change in PAI may be represented by a near-vertical line (Fig. 4).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Adult and oviposition PAI of Calliphora vomitoria and adult PAI of Hydrotaea pilipes were not related to temperature.Adult and oviposition PAI of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia caesar responded similarly, with an abrupt and large increase in a narrow range of low temperatures and no response in a broad range of high temperatures.Probably, different mechanisms form the basis for the response of PAI to temperature in flies colonizing carcasses shortly after death and flies colonizing carcasses later in the decomposition process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Criminalistics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Św. Marcin 90, 61-809, Poznań, Poland, szymmat@amu.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Flies are frequently used for postmortem interval (PMI) estimations. These estimates are usually based on the age of larval or pupal specimens. However, the age defines only the minimum PMI. In order to move forensic entomology further, a method useful for the estimation of an interval preceding insect appearance on a corpse called the pre-appearance interval (PAI) is needed. Recently, it was demonstrated that the PAI of several carrion beetles is closely related to the temperature prevailing throughout this interval. Hence, it was postulated to estimate PAI from temperature. In order to check premises for using this approach with flies, a test of the relationship between adult or oviposition PAI and temperature was made for nine species of European flies. Data on PAI originated from pig carcasses decomposing under various temperatures. Adult PAI of Hydrotaea dentipes, Hydrotaea ignava, Hydrotaea similis, Phormia regina, and Stearibia nigriceps and oviposition PAI of S. nigriceps were exponentially related to temperature. Only S. nigriceps revealed a close relationship, demonstrating solid premises for PAI estimation from temperature alone. Adult and oviposition PAI of Calliphora vomitoria and adult PAI of Hydrotaea pilipes were not related to temperature. Adult and oviposition PAI of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia caesar responded similarly, with an abrupt and large increase in a narrow range of low temperatures and no response in a broad range of high temperatures. Probably, different mechanisms form the basis for the response of PAI to temperature in flies colonizing carcasses shortly after death and flies colonizing carcasses later in the decomposition process.

Show MeSH