Limits...
Bacterial diversity in snow on North Pole ice floes.

Hauptmann AL, Stibal M, Bælum J, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Brunak S, Bowman JS, Hansen LH, Jacobsen CS, Blom N - Extremophiles (2014)

Bottom Line: A total of 291,331 sequences were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, resulting in 984 OTUs at 97 % identity.Principal component analysis showed that the three sites clustered together when compared to the underlying environments of sea ice and ocean water.The results support the idea that a globally distributed community exists in snow and that the global snow community can in part be attributed to microbial input from the atmosphere.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Hørsholm, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
The microbial abundance and diversity in snow on ice floes at three sites near the North Pole was assessed using quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples ranged between 43 and 248 gene copies per millilitre of melted snow. A total of 291,331 sequences were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, resulting in 984 OTUs at 97 % identity. Two sites were dominated by Cyanobacteria (72 and 61 %, respectively), including chloroplasts. The third site differed by consisting of 95 % Proteobacteria. Principal component analysis showed that the three sites clustered together when compared to the underlying environments of sea ice and ocean water. The Shannon indices ranged from 2.226 to 3.758, and the Chao1 indices showed species richness between 293 and 353 for the three samples. The relatively low abundances and diversity found in the samples indicate a lower rate of microbial input to this snow habitat compared to snow in the proximity of terrestrial and anthropogenic sources of microorganisms. The differences in species composition and diversity between the sites show that apparently similar snow habitats contain a large variation in biodiversity, although the differences were smaller than the differences to the underlying environment. The results support the idea that a globally distributed community exists in snow and that the global snow community can in part be attributed to microbial input from the atmosphere.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Principal component analysis (PCA) ordination of the microbial diversity data in the snow from the three North Pole sites, ice and ocean water of three depths. The first axis explains 25.9 % of the variation in the data, and the second axis explains 14.8 % of the variation in the data
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196135&req=5

Fig4: Principal component analysis (PCA) ordination of the microbial diversity data in the snow from the three North Pole sites, ice and ocean water of three depths. The first axis explains 25.9 % of the variation in the data, and the second axis explains 14.8 % of the variation in the data

Mentions: The community composition in the North Pole snow was compared to the surrounding environment of sea ice and ocean water described in a related study conducted during the LOMROG II expedition (Bowman et al. 2012) using a principal component analysis (Fig. 4). The three snow samples, from sites hundreds of kilometres apart, are more similar to each other than to the underlying sea ice and ocean water. This result again shows that the snow community resembles snow communities at distant sites and, gives further support to the idea of a global microbial community common to snow. These results also suggest that the snow community does not receive a major part of its input of microorganisms from the underlying environment, but more likely from the overlying environment, i.e., the atmosphere. Atmospheric input as a major source of biodiversity is a potential factor behind the global similarities of snow microbial communities.Fig. 4


Bacterial diversity in snow on North Pole ice floes.

Hauptmann AL, Stibal M, Bælum J, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Brunak S, Bowman JS, Hansen LH, Jacobsen CS, Blom N - Extremophiles (2014)

Principal component analysis (PCA) ordination of the microbial diversity data in the snow from the three North Pole sites, ice and ocean water of three depths. The first axis explains 25.9 % of the variation in the data, and the second axis explains 14.8 % of the variation in the data
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196135&req=5

Fig4: Principal component analysis (PCA) ordination of the microbial diversity data in the snow from the three North Pole sites, ice and ocean water of three depths. The first axis explains 25.9 % of the variation in the data, and the second axis explains 14.8 % of the variation in the data
Mentions: The community composition in the North Pole snow was compared to the surrounding environment of sea ice and ocean water described in a related study conducted during the LOMROG II expedition (Bowman et al. 2012) using a principal component analysis (Fig. 4). The three snow samples, from sites hundreds of kilometres apart, are more similar to each other than to the underlying sea ice and ocean water. This result again shows that the snow community resembles snow communities at distant sites and, gives further support to the idea of a global microbial community common to snow. These results also suggest that the snow community does not receive a major part of its input of microorganisms from the underlying environment, but more likely from the overlying environment, i.e., the atmosphere. Atmospheric input as a major source of biodiversity is a potential factor behind the global similarities of snow microbial communities.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: A total of 291,331 sequences were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, resulting in 984 OTUs at 97 % identity.Principal component analysis showed that the three sites clustered together when compared to the underlying environments of sea ice and ocean water.The results support the idea that a globally distributed community exists in snow and that the global snow community can in part be attributed to microbial input from the atmosphere.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Hørsholm, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
The microbial abundance and diversity in snow on ice floes at three sites near the North Pole was assessed using quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples ranged between 43 and 248 gene copies per millilitre of melted snow. A total of 291,331 sequences were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, resulting in 984 OTUs at 97 % identity. Two sites were dominated by Cyanobacteria (72 and 61 %, respectively), including chloroplasts. The third site differed by consisting of 95 % Proteobacteria. Principal component analysis showed that the three sites clustered together when compared to the underlying environments of sea ice and ocean water. The Shannon indices ranged from 2.226 to 3.758, and the Chao1 indices showed species richness between 293 and 353 for the three samples. The relatively low abundances and diversity found in the samples indicate a lower rate of microbial input to this snow habitat compared to snow in the proximity of terrestrial and anthropogenic sources of microorganisms. The differences in species composition and diversity between the sites show that apparently similar snow habitats contain a large variation in biodiversity, although the differences were smaller than the differences to the underlying environment. The results support the idea that a globally distributed community exists in snow and that the global snow community can in part be attributed to microbial input from the atmosphere.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus