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A radiographic and anthropometric study of the effect of a contoured sandal and foot orthosis on supporting the medial longitudinal arch.

Escalona-Marfil C, McPoil TG, Mellor R, Vicenzino B - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

Bottom Line: The contoured sandal significantly increased dorsal arch height compared to barefoot and flat sandal in both the anthropometric and radiographic experiments with SMD ranging from 0.95 (mean difference 5.1 mm (CI: 0.3, 1.6)) to 1.8 (4.3 mm (1.9, 6.6)).Medial longitudinal arch height is elevated by contoured sandals and approximates subtalar joint neutral position of the foot and that achieved by an orthosis.Practitioners wanting to increase the medial longitudinal arch can do so with either an orthosis or a contoured sandal that includes the raised arch profile form of an orthosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de La Salud, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: In-shoe foot orthoses improve conditions such as plantar heel pain (fasciitis), probably due to their ability to raise the medial longitudinal arch of the foot and lower the stress on the plantar tissues. Increasingly the arch-profile form of the in-shoe foot orthosis is being incorporated into sandal footwear, providing an alternative footwear option for those who require an orthosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a sandal that incorporates the arch-profile of an in-shoe foot orthosis does indeed raise the medial longitudinal arch.

Methods: Three commercially available non-medical devices (contoured and flat sandal, prefabricated in-shoe orthosis) worn by healthy individuals were studied in two independent experiments, one using radiographic measurements in Australia (n = 11, 6 female, age 26.1 ± 4.3 yrs, BMI 22.0 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) and the other utilising anthropometric measures in the USA (n = 10, 6 female, age 26.3 ± 3.8 yrs, BMI 23.5 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)). A barefoot condition was also measured. Dorsal arch height was measured in both experiments, as well as in subtalar neutral in the anthropometric experiment. One way repeated measures ANOVA with follow up Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons were used to test differences between the conditions (contoured and flat sandal, orthosis, barefoot). Mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and standardised mean differences (SMD) were also calculated.

Results: The contoured sandal significantly increased dorsal arch height compared to barefoot and flat sandal in both the anthropometric and radiographic experiments with SMD ranging from 0.95 (mean difference 5.1 mm (CI: 0.3, 1.6)) to 1.8 (4.3 mm (1.9, 6.6)). There were small differences between the contoured sandal and orthosis of 1.9 mm (0.6, 3.3) in the radiographic experiment and 1.2 mm (-0.4, 0.9) in the anthropometric experiment. The contoured sandal approximated the subtalar neutral position (0.4 mm (-0.5, 0.7)).

Conclusions: Medial longitudinal arch height is elevated by contoured sandals and approximates subtalar joint neutral position of the foot and that achieved by an orthosis. Practitioners wanting to increase the medial longitudinal arch can do so with either an orthosis or a contoured sandal that includes the raised arch profile form of an orthosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The reference sole line against which are measured the two linear measures approximating mid foot height and angular measures of the tibia on the foot. The angle of the foot to the platform was measured between the sole line and the nail heads within the platform.
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Fig5: The reference sole line against which are measured the two linear measures approximating mid foot height and angular measures of the tibia on the foot. The angle of the foot to the platform was measured between the sole line and the nail heads within the platform.

Mentions: For the radiographic experiment, the lateral radiographs were analysed by a single researcher (CE), and viewed using the MicroDicom Viewing software program (Version 0.7.6, http://www.microdicom.com/, Sofia, Bulgaria). Two linear measurements of mid foot height and two angular measurements of the position of the foot and tibia in the sagittal plane were made (Figure 5). The two radio-opaque markers under the heel and second metatarsal head were located and a line drawn between them, identified as the sole line against which the linear and angular measures were referenced. The dorsal height was measured perpendicularly from the sole line and the dorsal radio-opaque marker located at the mid-foot point. The navicular height was likewise measured perpendicularly between the sole line and the most inferior aspect of the navicular bone. The linear measures were calibrated against the known distances between the nail heads located within the platform.Figure 5


A radiographic and anthropometric study of the effect of a contoured sandal and foot orthosis on supporting the medial longitudinal arch.

Escalona-Marfil C, McPoil TG, Mellor R, Vicenzino B - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

The reference sole line against which are measured the two linear measures approximating mid foot height and angular measures of the tibia on the foot. The angle of the foot to the platform was measured between the sole line and the nail heads within the platform.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196133&req=5

Fig5: The reference sole line against which are measured the two linear measures approximating mid foot height and angular measures of the tibia on the foot. The angle of the foot to the platform was measured between the sole line and the nail heads within the platform.
Mentions: For the radiographic experiment, the lateral radiographs were analysed by a single researcher (CE), and viewed using the MicroDicom Viewing software program (Version 0.7.6, http://www.microdicom.com/, Sofia, Bulgaria). Two linear measurements of mid foot height and two angular measurements of the position of the foot and tibia in the sagittal plane were made (Figure 5). The two radio-opaque markers under the heel and second metatarsal head were located and a line drawn between them, identified as the sole line against which the linear and angular measures were referenced. The dorsal height was measured perpendicularly from the sole line and the dorsal radio-opaque marker located at the mid-foot point. The navicular height was likewise measured perpendicularly between the sole line and the most inferior aspect of the navicular bone. The linear measures were calibrated against the known distances between the nail heads located within the platform.Figure 5

Bottom Line: The contoured sandal significantly increased dorsal arch height compared to barefoot and flat sandal in both the anthropometric and radiographic experiments with SMD ranging from 0.95 (mean difference 5.1 mm (CI: 0.3, 1.6)) to 1.8 (4.3 mm (1.9, 6.6)).Medial longitudinal arch height is elevated by contoured sandals and approximates subtalar joint neutral position of the foot and that achieved by an orthosis.Practitioners wanting to increase the medial longitudinal arch can do so with either an orthosis or a contoured sandal that includes the raised arch profile form of an orthosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de La Salud, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: In-shoe foot orthoses improve conditions such as plantar heel pain (fasciitis), probably due to their ability to raise the medial longitudinal arch of the foot and lower the stress on the plantar tissues. Increasingly the arch-profile form of the in-shoe foot orthosis is being incorporated into sandal footwear, providing an alternative footwear option for those who require an orthosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a sandal that incorporates the arch-profile of an in-shoe foot orthosis does indeed raise the medial longitudinal arch.

Methods: Three commercially available non-medical devices (contoured and flat sandal, prefabricated in-shoe orthosis) worn by healthy individuals were studied in two independent experiments, one using radiographic measurements in Australia (n = 11, 6 female, age 26.1 ± 4.3 yrs, BMI 22.0 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) and the other utilising anthropometric measures in the USA (n = 10, 6 female, age 26.3 ± 3.8 yrs, BMI 23.5 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)). A barefoot condition was also measured. Dorsal arch height was measured in both experiments, as well as in subtalar neutral in the anthropometric experiment. One way repeated measures ANOVA with follow up Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons were used to test differences between the conditions (contoured and flat sandal, orthosis, barefoot). Mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and standardised mean differences (SMD) were also calculated.

Results: The contoured sandal significantly increased dorsal arch height compared to barefoot and flat sandal in both the anthropometric and radiographic experiments with SMD ranging from 0.95 (mean difference 5.1 mm (CI: 0.3, 1.6)) to 1.8 (4.3 mm (1.9, 6.6)). There were small differences between the contoured sandal and orthosis of 1.9 mm (0.6, 3.3) in the radiographic experiment and 1.2 mm (-0.4, 0.9) in the anthropometric experiment. The contoured sandal approximated the subtalar neutral position (0.4 mm (-0.5, 0.7)).

Conclusions: Medial longitudinal arch height is elevated by contoured sandals and approximates subtalar joint neutral position of the foot and that achieved by an orthosis. Practitioners wanting to increase the medial longitudinal arch can do so with either an orthosis or a contoured sandal that includes the raised arch profile form of an orthosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus