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Influence of exercise on the metabolic profile caused by 28 days of bed rest with energy deficit and amino acid supplementation in healthy men.

Brooks NE, Cadena SM, Cloutier G, Vega-López S, Roubenoff R, Castaneda-Sceppa C - Int J Med Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: BR: 131 ± 4 cm(2); p<0.001, time-by-group); although, exercise did not completely alleviate the unfavourable metabolic changes seen with BR.BR: 219 ± 13 ng/mL; p<0.001) and neither group showed TNFα changes (p>0.05).We conclude that RT can be incorporated to potentially offset the metabolic complications of BR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Health & Exercise Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland UK.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Muscle loss and metabolic changes occur with disuse [i.e. bed rest (BR)]. We hypothesized that BR would lead to a metabolically unhealthy profile defined by: increased circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, decreased circulating insulin-like-growth-factor (IGF)-1, decreased HDL-cholesterol, and decreased muscle density (MD; measured by mid-thigh computerized tomography).

Methods: We investigated the metabolic profile after 28 days of BR with 8 ± 6% energy deficit in male individuals (30-55 years) randomized to resistance exercise with amino acid supplementation (RT, n=24) or amino acid supplementation alone (EAA, n=7). Upper and lower body exercises were performed in the horizontal position. Blood samples were taken at baseline, after 28 days of BR and 14 days of recovery.

Results: We found a shift toward a metabolically unfavourable profile after BR [compared to baseline (BLN)] in both groups as shown by decreased HDL-cholesterol levels (EAA: BLN: 39 ± 4 vs. BR: 32 ± 2 mg/dL, RT: BLN: 39 ± 1 vs. BR: 32 ± 1 mg/dL; p<0.001) and Low MD (EAA: BLN: 27 ± 4 vs. BR: 22 ± 3 cm(2), RT: BLN: 28 ± 2 vs. BR: 23 ± 2 cm(2); p<0.001). A healthier metabolic profile was maintained with exercise, including NormalMD (EAA: BLN: 124 ± 6 vs. BR: 110 ± 5 cm(2), RT: BLN: 132 ± 3 vs. BR: 131 ± 4 cm(2); p<0.001, time-by-group); although, exercise did not completely alleviate the unfavourable metabolic changes seen with BR. Interestingly, both groups had increased plasma IGF-1 levels (EAA: BLN:168 ± 22 vs. BR 213 ± 20 ng/mL, RT: BLN:180 ± 10 vs. BR: 219 ± 13 ng/mL; p<0.001) and neither group showed TNFα changes (p>0.05).

Conclusions: We conclude that RT can be incorporated to potentially offset the metabolic complications of BR.

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Low density, normal density muscle and subfacial fat in skeletal muscle after 28 days bed rest and 14 days active recovery. a) Low density muscle, b) Normal density muscle, c) Subfacial fat, d) Leg lean mass. Values are mean ± SEM. Participants were randomized into amino acid supplement (EAA) group or resistance training with amino acid supplement (RT) group. Open bars: baseline values; grey bars: values after 28 days of BR; filled bars: values after 14 days of active recovery. Repeated measures analyses using General Linear Models (GLM) were carried out to assess the interaction between time [baseline (or pre-bed rest), end of bedrest, and recovery] and group [amino acids vs amino acids plus exercise] on each of the dependent variable studied. *p < 0.001 for time effect, ** p < 0.001 for time-by-group interaction.
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Figure 3: Low density, normal density muscle and subfacial fat in skeletal muscle after 28 days bed rest and 14 days active recovery. a) Low density muscle, b) Normal density muscle, c) Subfacial fat, d) Leg lean mass. Values are mean ± SEM. Participants were randomized into amino acid supplement (EAA) group or resistance training with amino acid supplement (RT) group. Open bars: baseline values; grey bars: values after 28 days of BR; filled bars: values after 14 days of active recovery. Repeated measures analyses using General Linear Models (GLM) were carried out to assess the interaction between time [baseline (or pre-bed rest), end of bedrest, and recovery] and group [amino acids vs amino acids plus exercise] on each of the dependent variable studied. *p < 0.001 for time effect, ** p < 0.001 for time-by-group interaction.

Mentions: Low density muscle significantly decreased in both groups after BR (time effect, p < 0.001) and returned to baseline values after recovery (time effect p < 0.001), Figure 3a. Normal density muscle decreased significantly in the EAA group after BR (time-by-group effect, p < 0.001) and it did not return to baseline values after recovery (time-by-group effect, p = 0.002), Figure 3b. Subfacial fat showed a trend towards time-by-group effect after BR (p = 0.076) with an increase in the EAA group compared to RT, Figure 3c. Lean leg mass decreased significantly in both groups after BR (time effect, p < 0.001). After recovery the RT group increased to a greater extent than the EAA group (time-by-group effect, p = 0.033); Figure 3d. Values were previously reported in 13.


Influence of exercise on the metabolic profile caused by 28 days of bed rest with energy deficit and amino acid supplementation in healthy men.

Brooks NE, Cadena SM, Cloutier G, Vega-López S, Roubenoff R, Castaneda-Sceppa C - Int J Med Sci (2014)

Low density, normal density muscle and subfacial fat in skeletal muscle after 28 days bed rest and 14 days active recovery. a) Low density muscle, b) Normal density muscle, c) Subfacial fat, d) Leg lean mass. Values are mean ± SEM. Participants were randomized into amino acid supplement (EAA) group or resistance training with amino acid supplement (RT) group. Open bars: baseline values; grey bars: values after 28 days of BR; filled bars: values after 14 days of active recovery. Repeated measures analyses using General Linear Models (GLM) were carried out to assess the interaction between time [baseline (or pre-bed rest), end of bedrest, and recovery] and group [amino acids vs amino acids plus exercise] on each of the dependent variable studied. *p < 0.001 for time effect, ** p < 0.001 for time-by-group interaction.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196126&req=5

Figure 3: Low density, normal density muscle and subfacial fat in skeletal muscle after 28 days bed rest and 14 days active recovery. a) Low density muscle, b) Normal density muscle, c) Subfacial fat, d) Leg lean mass. Values are mean ± SEM. Participants were randomized into amino acid supplement (EAA) group or resistance training with amino acid supplement (RT) group. Open bars: baseline values; grey bars: values after 28 days of BR; filled bars: values after 14 days of active recovery. Repeated measures analyses using General Linear Models (GLM) were carried out to assess the interaction between time [baseline (or pre-bed rest), end of bedrest, and recovery] and group [amino acids vs amino acids plus exercise] on each of the dependent variable studied. *p < 0.001 for time effect, ** p < 0.001 for time-by-group interaction.
Mentions: Low density muscle significantly decreased in both groups after BR (time effect, p < 0.001) and returned to baseline values after recovery (time effect p < 0.001), Figure 3a. Normal density muscle decreased significantly in the EAA group after BR (time-by-group effect, p < 0.001) and it did not return to baseline values after recovery (time-by-group effect, p = 0.002), Figure 3b. Subfacial fat showed a trend towards time-by-group effect after BR (p = 0.076) with an increase in the EAA group compared to RT, Figure 3c. Lean leg mass decreased significantly in both groups after BR (time effect, p < 0.001). After recovery the RT group increased to a greater extent than the EAA group (time-by-group effect, p = 0.033); Figure 3d. Values were previously reported in 13.

Bottom Line: BR: 131 ± 4 cm(2); p<0.001, time-by-group); although, exercise did not completely alleviate the unfavourable metabolic changes seen with BR.BR: 219 ± 13 ng/mL; p<0.001) and neither group showed TNFα changes (p>0.05).We conclude that RT can be incorporated to potentially offset the metabolic complications of BR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Health & Exercise Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland UK.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Muscle loss and metabolic changes occur with disuse [i.e. bed rest (BR)]. We hypothesized that BR would lead to a metabolically unhealthy profile defined by: increased circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, decreased circulating insulin-like-growth-factor (IGF)-1, decreased HDL-cholesterol, and decreased muscle density (MD; measured by mid-thigh computerized tomography).

Methods: We investigated the metabolic profile after 28 days of BR with 8 ± 6% energy deficit in male individuals (30-55 years) randomized to resistance exercise with amino acid supplementation (RT, n=24) or amino acid supplementation alone (EAA, n=7). Upper and lower body exercises were performed in the horizontal position. Blood samples were taken at baseline, after 28 days of BR and 14 days of recovery.

Results: We found a shift toward a metabolically unfavourable profile after BR [compared to baseline (BLN)] in both groups as shown by decreased HDL-cholesterol levels (EAA: BLN: 39 ± 4 vs. BR: 32 ± 2 mg/dL, RT: BLN: 39 ± 1 vs. BR: 32 ± 1 mg/dL; p<0.001) and Low MD (EAA: BLN: 27 ± 4 vs. BR: 22 ± 3 cm(2), RT: BLN: 28 ± 2 vs. BR: 23 ± 2 cm(2); p<0.001). A healthier metabolic profile was maintained with exercise, including NormalMD (EAA: BLN: 124 ± 6 vs. BR: 110 ± 5 cm(2), RT: BLN: 132 ± 3 vs. BR: 131 ± 4 cm(2); p<0.001, time-by-group); although, exercise did not completely alleviate the unfavourable metabolic changes seen with BR. Interestingly, both groups had increased plasma IGF-1 levels (EAA: BLN:168 ± 22 vs. BR 213 ± 20 ng/mL, RT: BLN:180 ± 10 vs. BR: 219 ± 13 ng/mL; p<0.001) and neither group showed TNFα changes (p>0.05).

Conclusions: We conclude that RT can be incorporated to potentially offset the metabolic complications of BR.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus