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A dose-finding, long-term study on the use of calcium chloride in saline solution as a method of nonsurgical sterilization in dogs: evaluation of the most effective concentration with the lowest risk.

Leoci R, Aiudi G, Silvestre F, Lissner EA, Marino F, Lacalandra GM - Acta Vet. Scand. (2014)

Bottom Line: Total sperm count, semen volume and testosterone showed significant dose-dependent decreases upon treatment with 10%-60% CaCl2 compared with either the control group (0% CaCl2) or baseline for each treatment group.For each treatment group, testosterone levels had decreased an average of 35%-70% at 6 months following treatment.However, at dosages free of adverse events, calcium chloride in saline may not provide permanent sterilization as previously believed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO), Section of Veterinary Clinic and Animal Production, University of Bari Aldo Moro, SP per Casamassima km 3, 70010, Valenzano, BA, Italy. leocivet@yahoo.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Canine overpopulation is a global issue with serious health and welfare implications. Nonsurgical methods of sterilization could yield positive impacts on this problem, but no long-term data on such methods are available. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the effects of intratesticular injections of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2) in saline in dogs over a one year period. Five concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 60%) of CaCl2 in saline were administered via intratesticular injection to groups of 10 dogs each. Total sperm count and motility, blood levels of testosterone, and side effects were examined at 0, 2, 6, and 12 months post-injection (PI). Testicular size and semen volume were examined at 0 and 12 months PI.

Results: Total sperm count, semen volume and testosterone showed significant dose-dependent decreases upon treatment with 10%-60% CaCl2 compared with either the control group (0% CaCl2) or baseline for each treatment group. Azoospermia was achieved for at least 12 months PI in 60% and 80% of treated dogs after administration of a 10% and 20% CaCl2, respectively. Treatment with 30% or 60% CaCl2 resulted in azoospermia in 100% of dogs, but more side effects were observed, while no side effects were noticed at lower doses. For each treatment group, testosterone levels had decreased an average of 35%-70% at 6 months following treatment. However, testosterone levels rebounded by the 12-month time point in all groups except the highest dosage group (60% CaCl2), which remained at the low end of physiological range throughout the study. Sperm motility dropped to zero or near zero in all dogs treated with CaCl2. Testicular size was significantly smaller at 12 months PI for all groups when compared to baseline.

Conclusions: This first long-term study confirms reports of the efficacy of CaCl2 sterilization. However, at dosages free of adverse events, calcium chloride in saline may not provide permanent sterilization as previously believed. Future work should explore optimized solvents to increase the permanence of the well-tolerated 20% formulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrograph of testicular tissue from an orchiectomized dog in group C. The arrow shows interstitial infiltration of giant cells. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin using standard methods.
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Fig2: Photomicrograph of testicular tissue from an orchiectomized dog in group C. The arrow shows interstitial infiltration of giant cells. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin using standard methods.

Mentions: Two dogs of group C and six of group D showed an inflamed scrotum by 72 h PI which developed into a scrotal ulcer and fistula in the following days. Surgical castration and scrotal ablation was conducted on day 15 PI. Histological examination of testicular tissue from orchiectomized dogs in group C showed massive necrosis surrounded by fibrous connective tissue and peripheral calcification (Figure 1). Sparse calcium deposits were present at the periphery of the testicles while the remaining tissue showed severe tubular degeneration. At higher magnification, the seminiferous epithelium was constituted of one or two cell layers lining the tubular lumen. Moreover, plasma cells, macrophage infiltration and the presence of numerous multinucleated giant and epithelioid cells were found inside the seminiferous tubules (Figure 2).Figure 1


A dose-finding, long-term study on the use of calcium chloride in saline solution as a method of nonsurgical sterilization in dogs: evaluation of the most effective concentration with the lowest risk.

Leoci R, Aiudi G, Silvestre F, Lissner EA, Marino F, Lacalandra GM - Acta Vet. Scand. (2014)

Photomicrograph of testicular tissue from an orchiectomized dog in group C. The arrow shows interstitial infiltration of giant cells. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin using standard methods.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4196017&req=5

Fig2: Photomicrograph of testicular tissue from an orchiectomized dog in group C. The arrow shows interstitial infiltration of giant cells. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin using standard methods.
Mentions: Two dogs of group C and six of group D showed an inflamed scrotum by 72 h PI which developed into a scrotal ulcer and fistula in the following days. Surgical castration and scrotal ablation was conducted on day 15 PI. Histological examination of testicular tissue from orchiectomized dogs in group C showed massive necrosis surrounded by fibrous connective tissue and peripheral calcification (Figure 1). Sparse calcium deposits were present at the periphery of the testicles while the remaining tissue showed severe tubular degeneration. At higher magnification, the seminiferous epithelium was constituted of one or two cell layers lining the tubular lumen. Moreover, plasma cells, macrophage infiltration and the presence of numerous multinucleated giant and epithelioid cells were found inside the seminiferous tubules (Figure 2).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Total sperm count, semen volume and testosterone showed significant dose-dependent decreases upon treatment with 10%-60% CaCl2 compared with either the control group (0% CaCl2) or baseline for each treatment group.For each treatment group, testosterone levels had decreased an average of 35%-70% at 6 months following treatment.However, at dosages free of adverse events, calcium chloride in saline may not provide permanent sterilization as previously believed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO), Section of Veterinary Clinic and Animal Production, University of Bari Aldo Moro, SP per Casamassima km 3, 70010, Valenzano, BA, Italy. leocivet@yahoo.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Canine overpopulation is a global issue with serious health and welfare implications. Nonsurgical methods of sterilization could yield positive impacts on this problem, but no long-term data on such methods are available. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the effects of intratesticular injections of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2) in saline in dogs over a one year period. Five concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 60%) of CaCl2 in saline were administered via intratesticular injection to groups of 10 dogs each. Total sperm count and motility, blood levels of testosterone, and side effects were examined at 0, 2, 6, and 12 months post-injection (PI). Testicular size and semen volume were examined at 0 and 12 months PI.

Results: Total sperm count, semen volume and testosterone showed significant dose-dependent decreases upon treatment with 10%-60% CaCl2 compared with either the control group (0% CaCl2) or baseline for each treatment group. Azoospermia was achieved for at least 12 months PI in 60% and 80% of treated dogs after administration of a 10% and 20% CaCl2, respectively. Treatment with 30% or 60% CaCl2 resulted in azoospermia in 100% of dogs, but more side effects were observed, while no side effects were noticed at lower doses. For each treatment group, testosterone levels had decreased an average of 35%-70% at 6 months following treatment. However, testosterone levels rebounded by the 12-month time point in all groups except the highest dosage group (60% CaCl2), which remained at the low end of physiological range throughout the study. Sperm motility dropped to zero or near zero in all dogs treated with CaCl2. Testicular size was significantly smaller at 12 months PI for all groups when compared to baseline.

Conclusions: This first long-term study confirms reports of the efficacy of CaCl2 sterilization. However, at dosages free of adverse events, calcium chloride in saline may not provide permanent sterilization as previously believed. Future work should explore optimized solvents to increase the permanence of the well-tolerated 20% formulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus