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Individual social capital and survival: a population study with 5-year follow-up.

Ejlskov L, Mortensen RN, Overgaard C, Christensen LR, Vardinghus-Nielsen H, Kræmer SR, Wissenberg M, Hansen SM, Torp-Pedersen C, Hansen CD - BMC Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95% CI = 0.421-0.816) while no such association was found for men (HR = 0.949, 95% CI = 0.816-1.104).We found differential effects of social capital in men compared to women.The predictive effects on all-cause mortality of four specific dimensions of social capital varied.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Science and Technology, Public Health and Epidemiology, Aalborg University, Niels Jernes Vej 14, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark. lindaejlskov@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences.

Methods: We used data from a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

Results: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95% CI = 0.421-0.816) while no such association was found for men (HR = 0.949, 95% CI = 0.816-1.104). Analysing the specific dimensions of social capital, higher levels of trust and social network were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.827, 95% CI = 0.750-0.913 and HR = 0.832, 95% CI = 0.729-0.949, respectively). For men, strong social networks were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.017-1.260). Civic engagement had a similar effect for both men (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.722-0.997) and women (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.630-1.140).

Conclusions: We found differential effects of social capital in men compared to women. The predictive effects on all-cause mortality of four specific dimensions of social capital varied. Gender stratified analysis and the use of multiple indicators to measure social capital are thus warranted in future research.

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Associations between social capital and all-cause mortality. HR (95% CI). n = 9288. 1Includes age and gender. 2Includes age, gender, socioeconomic status (education, living arrangements and income), health status (co-morbidity, self-rated health), and health behaviours (smoking, drinking, BMI).
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Fig2: Associations between social capital and all-cause mortality. HR (95% CI). n = 9288. 1Includes age and gender. 2Includes age, gender, socioeconomic status (education, living arrangements and income), health status (co-morbidity, self-rated health), and health behaviours (smoking, drinking, BMI).

Mentions: Figure 2 shows gender-specific associations between the composite social capital measure and all-cause mortality. No association was found between men’s social capital and mortality (HR = 0.909, 95% CI = 0.784-1.053), whereas for women, higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.526, 95% CI = 0.404-0.687). This association withstood control for socioeconomic status, age, health status, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95%CI = 0.421-0.816).Table 3


Individual social capital and survival: a population study with 5-year follow-up.

Ejlskov L, Mortensen RN, Overgaard C, Christensen LR, Vardinghus-Nielsen H, Kræmer SR, Wissenberg M, Hansen SM, Torp-Pedersen C, Hansen CD - BMC Public Health (2014)

Associations between social capital and all-cause mortality. HR (95% CI). n = 9288. 1Includes age and gender. 2Includes age, gender, socioeconomic status (education, living arrangements and income), health status (co-morbidity, self-rated health), and health behaviours (smoking, drinking, BMI).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195999&req=5

Fig2: Associations between social capital and all-cause mortality. HR (95% CI). n = 9288. 1Includes age and gender. 2Includes age, gender, socioeconomic status (education, living arrangements and income), health status (co-morbidity, self-rated health), and health behaviours (smoking, drinking, BMI).
Mentions: Figure 2 shows gender-specific associations between the composite social capital measure and all-cause mortality. No association was found between men’s social capital and mortality (HR = 0.909, 95% CI = 0.784-1.053), whereas for women, higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.526, 95% CI = 0.404-0.687). This association withstood control for socioeconomic status, age, health status, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95%CI = 0.421-0.816).Table 3

Bottom Line: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95% CI = 0.421-0.816) while no such association was found for men (HR = 0.949, 95% CI = 0.816-1.104).We found differential effects of social capital in men compared to women.The predictive effects on all-cause mortality of four specific dimensions of social capital varied.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Science and Technology, Public Health and Epidemiology, Aalborg University, Niels Jernes Vej 14, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark. lindaejlskov@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences.

Methods: We used data from a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

Results: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95% CI = 0.421-0.816) while no such association was found for men (HR = 0.949, 95% CI = 0.816-1.104). Analysing the specific dimensions of social capital, higher levels of trust and social network were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.827, 95% CI = 0.750-0.913 and HR = 0.832, 95% CI = 0.729-0.949, respectively). For men, strong social networks were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.017-1.260). Civic engagement had a similar effect for both men (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.722-0.997) and women (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.630-1.140).

Conclusions: We found differential effects of social capital in men compared to women. The predictive effects on all-cause mortality of four specific dimensions of social capital varied. Gender stratified analysis and the use of multiple indicators to measure social capital are thus warranted in future research.

Show MeSH