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Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract.

Karim AA, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, Abdullah NA - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays.The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. azrinaaz@upm.edu.my.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient.

Methods: Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength).

Results: LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent.

Conclusions: Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Absorbance of tested samples compared with commercial UV-sunscreen agent (Avobenzone and Octylmethoxycinnamate) at 200–400 wavelength.
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Fig1: Absorbance of tested samples compared with commercial UV-sunscreen agent (Avobenzone and Octylmethoxycinnamate) at 200–400 wavelength.

Mentions: CPE had moderate absorbance of UVA (315-400 nm) as illustrated in Figure 1, which was significantly better than that of standardized PBE (Table 7). Therefore, CPE has better potential as UVB sunscreen agent for cosmetic formulation and can be recommended in combination with other sunscreen agents with higher UVA absorbance properties. All plant extracts with pigment and color can absorb UVA and or UVB[67] as CPE does. Extracts with color might not be possible for white cream formulation; however, for color cosmetic products; i.e. foundation and lipstick, colored extracts could be added as sunscreen agents.Figure 1


Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract.

Karim AA, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, Abdullah NA - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Absorbance of tested samples compared with commercial UV-sunscreen agent (Avobenzone and Octylmethoxycinnamate) at 200–400 wavelength.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195981&req=5

Fig1: Absorbance of tested samples compared with commercial UV-sunscreen agent (Avobenzone and Octylmethoxycinnamate) at 200–400 wavelength.
Mentions: CPE had moderate absorbance of UVA (315-400 nm) as illustrated in Figure 1, which was significantly better than that of standardized PBE (Table 7). Therefore, CPE has better potential as UVB sunscreen agent for cosmetic formulation and can be recommended in combination with other sunscreen agents with higher UVA absorbance properties. All plant extracts with pigment and color can absorb UVA and or UVB[67] as CPE does. Extracts with color might not be possible for white cream formulation; however, for color cosmetic products; i.e. foundation and lipstick, colored extracts could be added as sunscreen agents.Figure 1

Bottom Line: The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays.The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. azrinaaz@upm.edu.my.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient.

Methods: Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength).

Results: LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent.

Conclusions: Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus