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Immunomodulatory effects of Stachytarpheta cayennensis leaf extract and its synergistic effect with artesunate.

Okoye TC, Akah PA, Ezike AC, Uzor PF, Odoh UE, Igboeme SO, Onwuka UB, Okafor SN - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Artesunate offered a non-significant (p > 0.05) percentage phagocytic stimulation (PPS) while the combined effect of artesunate and MESC exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent PPS with highest PPS of 393.77% at 100 μg/ml.The LD50 of the MESC was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg since there were no lethality and signs of acute intoxication after 48 h observation.The results of this study indicated that MESC possesses immunostimulatory action with significant synergistic effects with artesunate, and can therefore, offer immune boosting activities in disorders of immune suppression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State 410001, Nigeria. theokuba@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The leaves of Stachytarpheta cayennensis C. Rich. (Verbenaceae) have been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-malarial activities. Due to close association between inflammatory and immune responses, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of leaves extract of S. cayennensis. The combined effects of the leaves extract and artesunate, a standard antimalarial agent with immunomodulatory effects, were also evaluated.

Methods: The immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of S. cayennensis (MESC) was evaluated in mice using the Delayed-Type hypersensitivity response (DTHR), primary and secondary humoral immune responses and the in vivo leucocyte mobilization tests. The immunomodulatory effect of artesunate and the combined effects of MESC and artesunate were evaluated using the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Acute toxicity and lethality test in addition to the preliminary phytochemical studies of MESC were also performed.

Results: The MESC exhibited 64.21% inhibition of DTHR at 500 mg/kg dose and evoked 139.64% of phagocytic stimulation at 100 μg/ml dose. Also MESC significantly (p < 0.05) showed dose related stimulation of humoral immunity and a highest percentage leucocyte mobilization of 10.15% at 250 mg/kg dose. Artesunate offered a non-significant (p > 0.05) percentage phagocytic stimulation (PPS) while the combined effect of artesunate and MESC exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent PPS with highest PPS of 393.77% at 100 μg/ml. The LD50 of the MESC was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg since there were no lethality and signs of acute intoxication after 48 h observation. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids and steroids.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that MESC possesses immunostimulatory action with significant synergistic effects with artesunate, and can therefore, offer immune boosting activities in disorders of immune suppression.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage of phagocytic stimulation of theStachytarpheta cayennensisextract (MESC), levamisole, artesunate and the combined effects of MESC and artesunate.
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Fig2: Percentage of phagocytic stimulation of theStachytarpheta cayennensisextract (MESC), levamisole, artesunate and the combined effects of MESC and artesunate.

Mentions: Artesunate at the doses tested exhibited non-significant (p > 0.05) phagocytic stimulation compared to the control (Figure 1). MESC also at doses tested exhibited no significant (p > 0.05) phagocytic stimulation except the 100 μg/ml dose which exhibited significant (p < 0.05) phagocytic stimulation compared to the control. Moreover, the combined doses of the MESC and artesunate exhibited significant (p < 0.05) phagocytic stimulation (Figure 1). At 100 μg/ml concentration, artesunate, MESC, levamisole and artesunate plus MESC showed percentage phagocytic stimulation of 17.75, 139.64, 223.66 and 393.77% respectively (Figure 2). In addition the combined doses of the MESC and artesunate exhibited the highest phagocytic index (PI) and percentage phagocytic stimulation compared to the effects of the separate doses, the control and the levamisole, a standard agent (Figures 1 & 2).Figure 1


Immunomodulatory effects of Stachytarpheta cayennensis leaf extract and its synergistic effect with artesunate.

Okoye TC, Akah PA, Ezike AC, Uzor PF, Odoh UE, Igboeme SO, Onwuka UB, Okafor SN - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Percentage of phagocytic stimulation of theStachytarpheta cayennensisextract (MESC), levamisole, artesunate and the combined effects of MESC and artesunate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195953&req=5

Fig2: Percentage of phagocytic stimulation of theStachytarpheta cayennensisextract (MESC), levamisole, artesunate and the combined effects of MESC and artesunate.
Mentions: Artesunate at the doses tested exhibited non-significant (p > 0.05) phagocytic stimulation compared to the control (Figure 1). MESC also at doses tested exhibited no significant (p > 0.05) phagocytic stimulation except the 100 μg/ml dose which exhibited significant (p < 0.05) phagocytic stimulation compared to the control. Moreover, the combined doses of the MESC and artesunate exhibited significant (p < 0.05) phagocytic stimulation (Figure 1). At 100 μg/ml concentration, artesunate, MESC, levamisole and artesunate plus MESC showed percentage phagocytic stimulation of 17.75, 139.64, 223.66 and 393.77% respectively (Figure 2). In addition the combined doses of the MESC and artesunate exhibited the highest phagocytic index (PI) and percentage phagocytic stimulation compared to the effects of the separate doses, the control and the levamisole, a standard agent (Figures 1 & 2).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Artesunate offered a non-significant (p > 0.05) percentage phagocytic stimulation (PPS) while the combined effect of artesunate and MESC exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent PPS with highest PPS of 393.77% at 100 μg/ml.The LD50 of the MESC was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg since there were no lethality and signs of acute intoxication after 48 h observation.The results of this study indicated that MESC possesses immunostimulatory action with significant synergistic effects with artesunate, and can therefore, offer immune boosting activities in disorders of immune suppression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State 410001, Nigeria. theokuba@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The leaves of Stachytarpheta cayennensis C. Rich. (Verbenaceae) have been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-malarial activities. Due to close association between inflammatory and immune responses, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of leaves extract of S. cayennensis. The combined effects of the leaves extract and artesunate, a standard antimalarial agent with immunomodulatory effects, were also evaluated.

Methods: The immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of S. cayennensis (MESC) was evaluated in mice using the Delayed-Type hypersensitivity response (DTHR), primary and secondary humoral immune responses and the in vivo leucocyte mobilization tests. The immunomodulatory effect of artesunate and the combined effects of MESC and artesunate were evaluated using the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Acute toxicity and lethality test in addition to the preliminary phytochemical studies of MESC were also performed.

Results: The MESC exhibited 64.21% inhibition of DTHR at 500 mg/kg dose and evoked 139.64% of phagocytic stimulation at 100 μg/ml dose. Also MESC significantly (p < 0.05) showed dose related stimulation of humoral immunity and a highest percentage leucocyte mobilization of 10.15% at 250 mg/kg dose. Artesunate offered a non-significant (p > 0.05) percentage phagocytic stimulation (PPS) while the combined effect of artesunate and MESC exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent PPS with highest PPS of 393.77% at 100 μg/ml. The LD50 of the MESC was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg since there were no lethality and signs of acute intoxication after 48 h observation. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids and steroids.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that MESC possesses immunostimulatory action with significant synergistic effects with artesunate, and can therefore, offer immune boosting activities in disorders of immune suppression.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus