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The deep phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae).

Maddison WP, Li D, Bodner M, Zhang J - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Nungia is found to be an astioid, and Echeclus, Gedea and Diplocanthopoda to be hasariines.The euophryines are corroborated as monophyletic.The agoriines Agorius and Synagelides are salticoids, within the sister group to amycoids, but their further placement is problematical, perhaps because of their nuclear ribosomal genes' high GC bias, as also seen in the similarly problematic Eupoa.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Beaty Biodiversity Museum and Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 Canada ; Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 Canada.

ABSTRACT
In order to resolve better the deep relationships among salticid spiders, we compiled and analyzed a molecular dataset of 169 salticid taxa (and 7 outgroups) and 8 gene regions. This dataset adds many new taxa to previous analyses, especially among the non-salticoid salticids, as well as two new genes - wingless and myosin heavy chain. Both of these genes, and especially the better sampled wingless, confirm many of the relationships indicated by other genes. The cocalodines are placed as sister to lapsiines, in a broader clade with the spartaeines. Cocalodines, lapsiines, and spartaeines are each supported as monophyletic, though the first two have no known morphological synapomorphies. The lyssomanines appear to be non-monophyletic, of three separate groups: (1) Lyssomanes plus Chinoscopus, (2) Onomastus, and (3) the remainder of Old World species. Several previously-inferred relationships continue to be supported: hisponines as sister to the Salticoida, Amycoida as sister to the remaining Salticoida, and Saltafresia as monophyletic. The relationship of Salticus with Philaeus and relatives is now considered well enough corroborated to move the latter into the subfamily Salticinae. A new clade consisting of the Plexippoida + Aelurilloida + Leptorchesteae + Salticinae is recognized. Nungia is found to be an astioid, and Echeclus, Gedea and Diplocanthopoda to be hasariines. The euophryines are corroborated as monophyletic. The agoriines Agorius and Synagelides are salticoids, within the sister group to amycoids, but their further placement is problematical, perhaps because of their nuclear ribosomal genes' high GC bias, as also seen in the similarly problematic Eupoa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary of phylogenetic results. Number above branch shows percentage of maximum likelihood bootstrap replicates with clade. For clades outside the Salticoida, these percentages come from the Non-salticoid dataset with 1500 replicates; within the Salticoida, these come from the Salticoida dataset with 1000 replicates; the Salticoida percentage comes from the Complete dataset with 1000 replicates. Long bar on branch shows same percentage graphically: black 91–100%; dark gray 81–90%; gray 71–80%; light gray 51–70%. Oval spots show presence of clade in maximum likelihood tree for individual genes, with exceptions noted by * and adjacent notes. The notes about wingless on the Spartaeinae node and actin on the Salticoida node are ambiguous in placement; they could equally well have been placed one node deeper because of missing data. Pale gray outline indicates no conclusion because of inadequate taxon sampling. All indications of support are from analyses excluding Eupoa, agoriines, Spartaeus spinimanus and “Spartaeus” uplandicus. Bars show colors used to highlight taxa in Figs 15–27.
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Figure 2: Summary of phylogenetic results. Number above branch shows percentage of maximum likelihood bootstrap replicates with clade. For clades outside the Salticoida, these percentages come from the Non-salticoid dataset with 1500 replicates; within the Salticoida, these come from the Salticoida dataset with 1000 replicates; the Salticoida percentage comes from the Complete dataset with 1000 replicates. Long bar on branch shows same percentage graphically: black 91–100%; dark gray 81–90%; gray 71–80%; light gray 51–70%. Oval spots show presence of clade in maximum likelihood tree for individual genes, with exceptions noted by * and adjacent notes. The notes about wingless on the Spartaeinae node and actin on the Salticoida node are ambiguous in placement; they could equally well have been placed one node deeper because of missing data. Pale gray outline indicates no conclusion because of inadequate taxon sampling. All indications of support are from analyses excluding Eupoa, agoriines, Spartaeus spinimanus and “Spartaeus” uplandicus. Bars show colors used to highlight taxa in Figs 15–27.

Mentions: Figure 14 summarizes the results of the phylogenetic analyses, which are given in more detail in Figures 15–27. Colors assigned to clades in Figure 14 are shown in the remaining figures. Figures 15–19 show the All Genes results for the Complete, Non-salticoid and Salticoida datasets. Figures 20–27 show the results for individual genes analyzed separately.


The deep phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae).

Maddison WP, Li D, Bodner M, Zhang J - Zookeys (2014)

Summary of phylogenetic results. Number above branch shows percentage of maximum likelihood bootstrap replicates with clade. For clades outside the Salticoida, these percentages come from the Non-salticoid dataset with 1500 replicates; within the Salticoida, these come from the Salticoida dataset with 1000 replicates; the Salticoida percentage comes from the Complete dataset with 1000 replicates. Long bar on branch shows same percentage graphically: black 91–100%; dark gray 81–90%; gray 71–80%; light gray 51–70%. Oval spots show presence of clade in maximum likelihood tree for individual genes, with exceptions noted by * and adjacent notes. The notes about wingless on the Spartaeinae node and actin on the Salticoida node are ambiguous in placement; they could equally well have been placed one node deeper because of missing data. Pale gray outline indicates no conclusion because of inadequate taxon sampling. All indications of support are from analyses excluding Eupoa, agoriines, Spartaeus spinimanus and “Spartaeus” uplandicus. Bars show colors used to highlight taxa in Figs 15–27.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195940&req=5

Figure 2: Summary of phylogenetic results. Number above branch shows percentage of maximum likelihood bootstrap replicates with clade. For clades outside the Salticoida, these percentages come from the Non-salticoid dataset with 1500 replicates; within the Salticoida, these come from the Salticoida dataset with 1000 replicates; the Salticoida percentage comes from the Complete dataset with 1000 replicates. Long bar on branch shows same percentage graphically: black 91–100%; dark gray 81–90%; gray 71–80%; light gray 51–70%. Oval spots show presence of clade in maximum likelihood tree for individual genes, with exceptions noted by * and adjacent notes. The notes about wingless on the Spartaeinae node and actin on the Salticoida node are ambiguous in placement; they could equally well have been placed one node deeper because of missing data. Pale gray outline indicates no conclusion because of inadequate taxon sampling. All indications of support are from analyses excluding Eupoa, agoriines, Spartaeus spinimanus and “Spartaeus” uplandicus. Bars show colors used to highlight taxa in Figs 15–27.
Mentions: Figure 14 summarizes the results of the phylogenetic analyses, which are given in more detail in Figures 15–27. Colors assigned to clades in Figure 14 are shown in the remaining figures. Figures 15–19 show the All Genes results for the Complete, Non-salticoid and Salticoida datasets. Figures 20–27 show the results for individual genes analyzed separately.

Bottom Line: Nungia is found to be an astioid, and Echeclus, Gedea and Diplocanthopoda to be hasariines.The euophryines are corroborated as monophyletic.The agoriines Agorius and Synagelides are salticoids, within the sister group to amycoids, but their further placement is problematical, perhaps because of their nuclear ribosomal genes' high GC bias, as also seen in the similarly problematic Eupoa.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Beaty Biodiversity Museum and Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 Canada ; Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 Canada.

ABSTRACT
In order to resolve better the deep relationships among salticid spiders, we compiled and analyzed a molecular dataset of 169 salticid taxa (and 7 outgroups) and 8 gene regions. This dataset adds many new taxa to previous analyses, especially among the non-salticoid salticids, as well as two new genes - wingless and myosin heavy chain. Both of these genes, and especially the better sampled wingless, confirm many of the relationships indicated by other genes. The cocalodines are placed as sister to lapsiines, in a broader clade with the spartaeines. Cocalodines, lapsiines, and spartaeines are each supported as monophyletic, though the first two have no known morphological synapomorphies. The lyssomanines appear to be non-monophyletic, of three separate groups: (1) Lyssomanes plus Chinoscopus, (2) Onomastus, and (3) the remainder of Old World species. Several previously-inferred relationships continue to be supported: hisponines as sister to the Salticoida, Amycoida as sister to the remaining Salticoida, and Saltafresia as monophyletic. The relationship of Salticus with Philaeus and relatives is now considered well enough corroborated to move the latter into the subfamily Salticinae. A new clade consisting of the Plexippoida + Aelurilloida + Leptorchesteae + Salticinae is recognized. Nungia is found to be an astioid, and Echeclus, Gedea and Diplocanthopoda to be hasariines. The euophryines are corroborated as monophyletic. The agoriines Agorius and Synagelides are salticoids, within the sister group to amycoids, but their further placement is problematical, perhaps because of their nuclear ribosomal genes' high GC bias, as also seen in the similarly problematic Eupoa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus