Limits...
A shore-based preliminary survey of marine ribbon worms (Nemertea) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia.

Gonzalez-Cueto J, Quiroga S, Norenburg J - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: This is the first research focused broadly on nemerteans in Colombia. 54 specimens of nemerteans were hand-collected from the rocky littoral of two different localities, and identified according to personal experience and specialist literature. 13 species were found; of which 11 represent new records for the country.The most common and abundant species was Dushia atra.The results of this work suggest that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is a region with a high diversity of nemerteans, and provide important taxonomic data for environmental assessments and future biological research.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Magdalena. Carrera 32 No. 22-08, Santa Marta, Colombia.

ABSTRACT
A checklist of benthic ribbon worm species from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is presented, including synonyms, distributions, a photographic record, and the main morphologic characters of each species for a rapid identification. This is the first research focused broadly on nemerteans in Colombia. 54 specimens of nemerteans were hand-collected from the rocky littoral of two different localities, and identified according to personal experience and specialist literature. 13 species were found; of which 11 represent new records for the country. These species belong to eight different traditionally used families: Tubulanidae, Valenciniidae, Lineidae, Amphiporidae, Cratenemertidae, Emplectonematidae, Drepanophoridae and Ototyphlonemertidae. The most common and abundant species was Dushia atra. The biodiversity of nemerteans in Colombia seems to overlap with the nemertean fauna from Florida and Brazil, explained by the convergence of the North Brazil Current, Guiana Current, Caribbean Currents and the Panama-Colombia Contracurrent in the sampled region. The results of this work suggest that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is a region with a high diversity of nemerteans, and provide important taxonomic data for environmental assessments and future biological research.

No MeSH data available.


A–CNemertopsis bivittata: B dorsal detail of the head and proboscis, C detail of the stylets DOtotyphlonemertes erneba (modified from Corrêa 1950 and Kirsteuer 1977) E–GOtotyphlonemertes lactea: E entire worm F detail of the statocysts G detail of the stylets H–JZygonemertes fragariae: H entire worm I detail of the head J detail of the stylets K–MZygonemertes virescens: K entire worm L detail of the head M detail of the stylets. ac accessory stylet, b base of the stylet, br brain, c sensorial cirrus, e eyes, p proboscis, pa proboscis papilla, s sylet, st statocysts.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195936&req=5

Figure 4: A–CNemertopsis bivittata: B dorsal detail of the head and proboscis, C detail of the stylets DOtotyphlonemertes erneba (modified from Corrêa 1950 and Kirsteuer 1977) E–GOtotyphlonemertes lactea: E entire worm F detail of the statocysts G detail of the stylets H–JZygonemertes fragariae: H entire worm I detail of the head J detail of the stylets K–MZygonemertes virescens: K entire worm L detail of the head M detail of the stylets. ac accessory stylet, b base of the stylet, br brain, c sensorial cirrus, e eyes, p proboscis, pa proboscis papilla, s sylet, st statocysts.

Mentions: The mouth is ventral and posterior to the cerebral ganglia in Palaeonemertea and Heteronemertea (e.g., Fig. 2D, K). In all the HoplonemerteaMonostilifera encountered here the mouth and proboscis share a common pore, the rhynchopore, located at or subterminal to the tip of the head (NB: they open separately in most polystiliferans and in a few monostiliferans, but both openings are at the tip of the head). In lineid Heteronemertea (generally and in all specimens encountered here) a more or less deep furrow extends longitudinally along each side of the head and often is referred to as a cephalic slit, groove or furrow; the cerebral organ pore opens at its posterior. Cephalic furrows (when present) of tubulanid palaeonemerteans, baseodiscid heteronemerteans and hoplonemerteans are shallow and vertical or oblique, at the sides of the head near the cerebral ganglia, and they may be inconspicuous; the cerebral organ pore opens into the middle of each furrow. These furrows might best be referred to as cerebral organ furrows to distinguish them from a circumferential cephalic groove; a shallow epidermal groove that encircles the body and demarcates the “head” from the foregut region and found in most benthic Hoplonemertea and a very few Palaeonemertea and Pilidiophora. It commonly is post-cerebral and in Hoplonemertea usually takes the form of a dorsal posteriorly directed “V” and a ventral anteriorly directed “V”. The hoplonemertean proboscis when everted reveals a characteristic cylindrically uniform coating of more or less conspicuous epidermal papillae, whereas the anoplan proboscis generally lacks conspicuous papillae and often is bilaterally differentiated. The mid-region of the monostiliferan hoplonemertean proboscis is conspicuously differentiated into a bulb-like structure posteriorly and an anterior diaphragm bearing a basis with stylet and two or more sacs containing accessory stylets (e.g., Fig. 3G, M, P; 4C, G, J, M; 5H, K), whereas the mid-proboscis of polystiliferan Hoplonemertea is inconspicuously differentiated and bears an ovoid basis with multiple tiny stylets that may be very difficult to observe even with the 40× objective of a compound microscope. Measurements given below are from animals collected in this study.


A shore-based preliminary survey of marine ribbon worms (Nemertea) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia.

Gonzalez-Cueto J, Quiroga S, Norenburg J - Zookeys (2014)

A–CNemertopsis bivittata: B dorsal detail of the head and proboscis, C detail of the stylets DOtotyphlonemertes erneba (modified from Corrêa 1950 and Kirsteuer 1977) E–GOtotyphlonemertes lactea: E entire worm F detail of the statocysts G detail of the stylets H–JZygonemertes fragariae: H entire worm I detail of the head J detail of the stylets K–MZygonemertes virescens: K entire worm L detail of the head M detail of the stylets. ac accessory stylet, b base of the stylet, br brain, c sensorial cirrus, e eyes, p proboscis, pa proboscis papilla, s sylet, st statocysts.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195936&req=5

Figure 4: A–CNemertopsis bivittata: B dorsal detail of the head and proboscis, C detail of the stylets DOtotyphlonemertes erneba (modified from Corrêa 1950 and Kirsteuer 1977) E–GOtotyphlonemertes lactea: E entire worm F detail of the statocysts G detail of the stylets H–JZygonemertes fragariae: H entire worm I detail of the head J detail of the stylets K–MZygonemertes virescens: K entire worm L detail of the head M detail of the stylets. ac accessory stylet, b base of the stylet, br brain, c sensorial cirrus, e eyes, p proboscis, pa proboscis papilla, s sylet, st statocysts.
Mentions: The mouth is ventral and posterior to the cerebral ganglia in Palaeonemertea and Heteronemertea (e.g., Fig. 2D, K). In all the HoplonemerteaMonostilifera encountered here the mouth and proboscis share a common pore, the rhynchopore, located at or subterminal to the tip of the head (NB: they open separately in most polystiliferans and in a few monostiliferans, but both openings are at the tip of the head). In lineid Heteronemertea (generally and in all specimens encountered here) a more or less deep furrow extends longitudinally along each side of the head and often is referred to as a cephalic slit, groove or furrow; the cerebral organ pore opens at its posterior. Cephalic furrows (when present) of tubulanid palaeonemerteans, baseodiscid heteronemerteans and hoplonemerteans are shallow and vertical or oblique, at the sides of the head near the cerebral ganglia, and they may be inconspicuous; the cerebral organ pore opens into the middle of each furrow. These furrows might best be referred to as cerebral organ furrows to distinguish them from a circumferential cephalic groove; a shallow epidermal groove that encircles the body and demarcates the “head” from the foregut region and found in most benthic Hoplonemertea and a very few Palaeonemertea and Pilidiophora. It commonly is post-cerebral and in Hoplonemertea usually takes the form of a dorsal posteriorly directed “V” and a ventral anteriorly directed “V”. The hoplonemertean proboscis when everted reveals a characteristic cylindrically uniform coating of more or less conspicuous epidermal papillae, whereas the anoplan proboscis generally lacks conspicuous papillae and often is bilaterally differentiated. The mid-region of the monostiliferan hoplonemertean proboscis is conspicuously differentiated into a bulb-like structure posteriorly and an anterior diaphragm bearing a basis with stylet and two or more sacs containing accessory stylets (e.g., Fig. 3G, M, P; 4C, G, J, M; 5H, K), whereas the mid-proboscis of polystiliferan Hoplonemertea is inconspicuously differentiated and bears an ovoid basis with multiple tiny stylets that may be very difficult to observe even with the 40× objective of a compound microscope. Measurements given below are from animals collected in this study.

Bottom Line: This is the first research focused broadly on nemerteans in Colombia. 54 specimens of nemerteans were hand-collected from the rocky littoral of two different localities, and identified according to personal experience and specialist literature. 13 species were found; of which 11 represent new records for the country.The most common and abundant species was Dushia atra.The results of this work suggest that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is a region with a high diversity of nemerteans, and provide important taxonomic data for environmental assessments and future biological research.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Magdalena. Carrera 32 No. 22-08, Santa Marta, Colombia.

ABSTRACT
A checklist of benthic ribbon worm species from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is presented, including synonyms, distributions, a photographic record, and the main morphologic characters of each species for a rapid identification. This is the first research focused broadly on nemerteans in Colombia. 54 specimens of nemerteans were hand-collected from the rocky littoral of two different localities, and identified according to personal experience and specialist literature. 13 species were found; of which 11 represent new records for the country. These species belong to eight different traditionally used families: Tubulanidae, Valenciniidae, Lineidae, Amphiporidae, Cratenemertidae, Emplectonematidae, Drepanophoridae and Ototyphlonemertidae. The most common and abundant species was Dushia atra. The biodiversity of nemerteans in Colombia seems to overlap with the nemertean fauna from Florida and Brazil, explained by the convergence of the North Brazil Current, Guiana Current, Caribbean Currents and the Panama-Colombia Contracurrent in the sampled region. The results of this work suggest that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is a region with a high diversity of nemerteans, and provide important taxonomic data for environmental assessments and future biological research.

No MeSH data available.