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Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment.

Scott JG, Warren WC, Beukeboom LW, Bopp D, Clark AG, Giers SD, Hediger M, Jones AK, Kasai S, Leichter CA, Li M, Meisel RP, Minx P, Murphy TD, Nelson DR, Reid WR, Rinkevich FD, Robertson HM, Sackton TB, Sattelle DB, Thibaud-Nissen F, Tomlinson C, van de Zande L, Walden KK, Wilson RK, Liu N - Genome Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment.There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies.Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. jgs5@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal pathogens.

Results: We have sequenced and analyzed the genome of the house fly using DNA from female flies. The sequenced genome is 691 Mb. Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment. There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies. Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

Conclusions: This represents the first genome sequence of an insect that lives in intimate association with abundant animal pathogens. The house fly genome provides a rich resource for enabling work on innovative methods of insect control, for understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, genetic adaptation to high pathogen loads, and for exploring the basic biology of this important pest. The genome of this species will also serve as a close out-group to Drosophila in comparative genomic studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Molecular lesions inMd-traDalleles of different populations. Schematic organization of exons in Md-tra. Exon 2b and/or exon 3 are included in male Md-tra transcripts and cause premature termination of translation due to the presence of in-frame translational termination signals. In females these exon sequences are skipped, giving rise to transcripts with an intact open reading frame. The positions of the reported Md-traD sequence variations are indicated by arrows and further details are described in the boxes below [88].
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Fig4: Molecular lesions inMd-traDalleles of different populations. Schematic organization of exons in Md-tra. Exon 2b and/or exon 3 are included in male Md-tra transcripts and cause premature termination of translation due to the presence of in-frame translational termination signals. In females these exon sequences are skipped, giving rise to transcripts with an intact open reading frame. The positions of the reported Md-traD sequence variations are indicated by arrows and further details are described in the boxes below [88].

Mentions: The dominant female determining Md-traD (Genbank accession GU070694) allele sampled from a Japanese population contains four small deletions and a small insertion in the alternatively spliced sequences and one non-synonymous substitution in the coding region [88]. We sequenced Md-traD alleles of 22 to 24 individuals from 7 populations sampled across Europe, North America, Asia, Africa and Australia and found Md-traD alleles on all continents. Surprisingly, we detected exactly the same molecular signatures in Md-traD alleles of all populations tested (FigureĀ 4), but different alleles for the non-dominant form, containing insertions or deletions in exon 3. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the cause for its rapid global dispersion and fixation in autosomal populations. Availability of the genome sequence will facilitate such studies; particularly scans of the Md-tra locus can be conducted to look for more variants.Figure 4


Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment.

Scott JG, Warren WC, Beukeboom LW, Bopp D, Clark AG, Giers SD, Hediger M, Jones AK, Kasai S, Leichter CA, Li M, Meisel RP, Minx P, Murphy TD, Nelson DR, Reid WR, Rinkevich FD, Robertson HM, Sackton TB, Sattelle DB, Thibaud-Nissen F, Tomlinson C, van de Zande L, Walden KK, Wilson RK, Liu N - Genome Biol. (2014)

Molecular lesions inMd-traDalleles of different populations. Schematic organization of exons in Md-tra. Exon 2b and/or exon 3 are included in male Md-tra transcripts and cause premature termination of translation due to the presence of in-frame translational termination signals. In females these exon sequences are skipped, giving rise to transcripts with an intact open reading frame. The positions of the reported Md-traD sequence variations are indicated by arrows and further details are described in the boxes below [88].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195910&req=5

Fig4: Molecular lesions inMd-traDalleles of different populations. Schematic organization of exons in Md-tra. Exon 2b and/or exon 3 are included in male Md-tra transcripts and cause premature termination of translation due to the presence of in-frame translational termination signals. In females these exon sequences are skipped, giving rise to transcripts with an intact open reading frame. The positions of the reported Md-traD sequence variations are indicated by arrows and further details are described in the boxes below [88].
Mentions: The dominant female determining Md-traD (Genbank accession GU070694) allele sampled from a Japanese population contains four small deletions and a small insertion in the alternatively spliced sequences and one non-synonymous substitution in the coding region [88]. We sequenced Md-traD alleles of 22 to 24 individuals from 7 populations sampled across Europe, North America, Asia, Africa and Australia and found Md-traD alleles on all continents. Surprisingly, we detected exactly the same molecular signatures in Md-traD alleles of all populations tested (FigureĀ 4), but different alleles for the non-dominant form, containing insertions or deletions in exon 3. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the cause for its rapid global dispersion and fixation in autosomal populations. Availability of the genome sequence will facilitate such studies; particularly scans of the Md-tra locus can be conducted to look for more variants.Figure 4

Bottom Line: Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment.There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies.Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. jgs5@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal pathogens.

Results: We have sequenced and analyzed the genome of the house fly using DNA from female flies. The sequenced genome is 691 Mb. Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment. There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies. Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

Conclusions: This represents the first genome sequence of an insect that lives in intimate association with abundant animal pathogens. The house fly genome provides a rich resource for enabling work on innovative methods of insect control, for understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, genetic adaptation to high pathogen loads, and for exploring the basic biology of this important pest. The genome of this species will also serve as a close out-group to Drosophila in comparative genomic studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus