Limits...
Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment.

Scott JG, Warren WC, Beukeboom LW, Bopp D, Clark AG, Giers SD, Hediger M, Jones AK, Kasai S, Leichter CA, Li M, Meisel RP, Minx P, Murphy TD, Nelson DR, Reid WR, Rinkevich FD, Robertson HM, Sackton TB, Sattelle DB, Thibaud-Nissen F, Tomlinson C, van de Zande L, Walden KK, Wilson RK, Liu N - Genome Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment.There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies.Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. jgs5@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal pathogens.

Results: We have sequenced and analyzed the genome of the house fly using DNA from female flies. The sequenced genome is 691 Mb. Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment. There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies. Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

Conclusions: This represents the first genome sequence of an insect that lives in intimate association with abundant animal pathogens. The house fly genome provides a rich resource for enabling work on innovative methods of insect control, for understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, genetic adaptation to high pathogen loads, and for exploring the basic biology of this important pest. The genome of this species will also serve as a close out-group to Drosophila in comparative genomic studies.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogeny showing relationships ofM. domesticaandD. melanogastercysLGIC protein sequences.Anopheles gambiae sequences were also included when comparing nAChR sequences. Numbers at each node signify bootstrap values with 100 replicates and the scale bar represents substitutions per site. Genbank ccession numbers for sequences shown in the tree are: A. gambiae Agamα1 (AY705394), Agamα2 (AY705395), Agamα3 (AY705396), Agam α4 (AY705397), Agamα5 (AY705399), Agamα6 (AY705400), Agamα7 (AY705402), Agamα8 (AY705403), Agamαβ9α (AY705404) and Agamβ1 (AY705405); D. melanogaster Dα1 (CAA30172), Dα2 (CAA36517), Dα3 (CAA75688), Dα4 (CAB77445), Dα5 (AAM13390), Dα6 (AAM13392), Dα7 (AAK67257), Dβ1 (CAA27641), Dβ2 (CAA39211), Dβ3 (CAC48166), GluCl (AAG40735), GRD (Q24352), HisCl1 (AAL74413), HisCl2 (AAL74414), LCCH3 (AAB27090), the putative cysLGIC subunit Ntr (AF045471), pHCl (NP_001034025), RDL (AAA28556), CG6927 (AAF45992), CG7589 (AAF49337), CG8916 (BT022901), CG11340 (AAF57144), CG12344 (AAF58743); M. domestica Mdomα2 (DQ372062), Mdomα5 (EF203213), Mdomα6 (DQ498130), Mdomβ3 (EF203220), MdomRDL (Q75NA5), MdomGluCl (BAD16657). GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195910&req=5

Fig3: Phylogeny showing relationships ofM. domesticaandD. melanogastercysLGIC protein sequences.Anopheles gambiae sequences were also included when comparing nAChR sequences. Numbers at each node signify bootstrap values with 100 replicates and the scale bar represents substitutions per site. Genbank ccession numbers for sequences shown in the tree are: A. gambiae Agamα1 (AY705394), Agamα2 (AY705395), Agamα3 (AY705396), Agam α4 (AY705397), Agamα5 (AY705399), Agamα6 (AY705400), Agamα7 (AY705402), Agamα8 (AY705403), Agamαβ9α (AY705404) and Agamβ1 (AY705405); D. melanogaster Dα1 (CAA30172), Dα2 (CAA36517), Dα3 (CAA75688), Dα4 (CAB77445), Dα5 (AAM13390), Dα6 (AAM13392), Dα7 (AAK67257), Dβ1 (CAA27641), Dβ2 (CAA39211), Dβ3 (CAC48166), GluCl (AAG40735), GRD (Q24352), HisCl1 (AAL74413), HisCl2 (AAL74414), LCCH3 (AAB27090), the putative cysLGIC subunit Ntr (AF045471), pHCl (NP_001034025), RDL (AAA28556), CG6927 (AAF45992), CG7589 (AAF49337), CG8916 (BT022901), CG11340 (AAF57144), CG12344 (AAF58743); M. domestica Mdomα2 (DQ372062), Mdomα5 (EF203213), Mdomα6 (DQ498130), Mdomβ3 (EF203220), MdomRDL (Q75NA5), MdomGluCl (BAD16657). GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid.

Mentions: Members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily mediate fast synaptic transmission in insects. They play key roles in behavior, such as escape responses [62], olfactory learning and memory [63], as well as regulating sleep [64]. CysLGICs consist of five homologous subunits arranged around a central ion channel [65]. Analysis of the M. domestica genome has revealed 23 subunit-encoding genes, which is the same complement of genes found in D. melanogaster [66] (Figure 3). Ten of these genes encode putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, which consist of a core group of subunit-encoding genes (α1 to α7 and β1 to β2) [67] that are highly conserved between insect species, four of which (α2, α5, α6 and β3) have been characterized from M. domestica [68-70]. The M. domestica genome also contains a single divergent subunit (β3) that is less well conserved [70]. For nAChRs, α subunits are traditionally defined by the presence of two vicinal cysteine residues important for interactions with acetylcholine, while β subunits lack this motif [71]. The putative M. domestica ortholog of Dβ2 is a non-α subunit (Mdomβ2; Figure 3), which is unusual considering that the orthologs of Dβ2 in other insect species possess the cysteine doublet and thus are α subunits, including Agamα8 from another member of the Diptera, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae [72]. The amino acid sequences and accession numbers for the cysLGICs are provided in Additional file 11.Figure 3


Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment.

Scott JG, Warren WC, Beukeboom LW, Bopp D, Clark AG, Giers SD, Hediger M, Jones AK, Kasai S, Leichter CA, Li M, Meisel RP, Minx P, Murphy TD, Nelson DR, Reid WR, Rinkevich FD, Robertson HM, Sackton TB, Sattelle DB, Thibaud-Nissen F, Tomlinson C, van de Zande L, Walden KK, Wilson RK, Liu N - Genome Biol. (2014)

Phylogeny showing relationships ofM. domesticaandD. melanogastercysLGIC protein sequences.Anopheles gambiae sequences were also included when comparing nAChR sequences. Numbers at each node signify bootstrap values with 100 replicates and the scale bar represents substitutions per site. Genbank ccession numbers for sequences shown in the tree are: A. gambiae Agamα1 (AY705394), Agamα2 (AY705395), Agamα3 (AY705396), Agam α4 (AY705397), Agamα5 (AY705399), Agamα6 (AY705400), Agamα7 (AY705402), Agamα8 (AY705403), Agamαβ9α (AY705404) and Agamβ1 (AY705405); D. melanogaster Dα1 (CAA30172), Dα2 (CAA36517), Dα3 (CAA75688), Dα4 (CAB77445), Dα5 (AAM13390), Dα6 (AAM13392), Dα7 (AAK67257), Dβ1 (CAA27641), Dβ2 (CAA39211), Dβ3 (CAC48166), GluCl (AAG40735), GRD (Q24352), HisCl1 (AAL74413), HisCl2 (AAL74414), LCCH3 (AAB27090), the putative cysLGIC subunit Ntr (AF045471), pHCl (NP_001034025), RDL (AAA28556), CG6927 (AAF45992), CG7589 (AAF49337), CG8916 (BT022901), CG11340 (AAF57144), CG12344 (AAF58743); M. domestica Mdomα2 (DQ372062), Mdomα5 (EF203213), Mdomα6 (DQ498130), Mdomβ3 (EF203220), MdomRDL (Q75NA5), MdomGluCl (BAD16657). GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195910&req=5

Fig3: Phylogeny showing relationships ofM. domesticaandD. melanogastercysLGIC protein sequences.Anopheles gambiae sequences were also included when comparing nAChR sequences. Numbers at each node signify bootstrap values with 100 replicates and the scale bar represents substitutions per site. Genbank ccession numbers for sequences shown in the tree are: A. gambiae Agamα1 (AY705394), Agamα2 (AY705395), Agamα3 (AY705396), Agam α4 (AY705397), Agamα5 (AY705399), Agamα6 (AY705400), Agamα7 (AY705402), Agamα8 (AY705403), Agamαβ9α (AY705404) and Agamβ1 (AY705405); D. melanogaster Dα1 (CAA30172), Dα2 (CAA36517), Dα3 (CAA75688), Dα4 (CAB77445), Dα5 (AAM13390), Dα6 (AAM13392), Dα7 (AAK67257), Dβ1 (CAA27641), Dβ2 (CAA39211), Dβ3 (CAC48166), GluCl (AAG40735), GRD (Q24352), HisCl1 (AAL74413), HisCl2 (AAL74414), LCCH3 (AAB27090), the putative cysLGIC subunit Ntr (AF045471), pHCl (NP_001034025), RDL (AAA28556), CG6927 (AAF45992), CG7589 (AAF49337), CG8916 (BT022901), CG11340 (AAF57144), CG12344 (AAF58743); M. domestica Mdomα2 (DQ372062), Mdomα5 (EF203213), Mdomα6 (DQ498130), Mdomβ3 (EF203220), MdomRDL (Q75NA5), MdomGluCl (BAD16657). GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid.
Mentions: Members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily mediate fast synaptic transmission in insects. They play key roles in behavior, such as escape responses [62], olfactory learning and memory [63], as well as regulating sleep [64]. CysLGICs consist of five homologous subunits arranged around a central ion channel [65]. Analysis of the M. domestica genome has revealed 23 subunit-encoding genes, which is the same complement of genes found in D. melanogaster [66] (Figure 3). Ten of these genes encode putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, which consist of a core group of subunit-encoding genes (α1 to α7 and β1 to β2) [67] that are highly conserved between insect species, four of which (α2, α5, α6 and β3) have been characterized from M. domestica [68-70]. The M. domestica genome also contains a single divergent subunit (β3) that is less well conserved [70]. For nAChRs, α subunits are traditionally defined by the presence of two vicinal cysteine residues important for interactions with acetylcholine, while β subunits lack this motif [71]. The putative M. domestica ortholog of Dβ2 is a non-α subunit (Mdomβ2; Figure 3), which is unusual considering that the orthologs of Dβ2 in other insect species possess the cysteine doublet and thus are α subunits, including Agamα8 from another member of the Diptera, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae [72]. The amino acid sequences and accession numbers for the cysLGICs are provided in Additional file 11.Figure 3

Bottom Line: Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment.There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies.Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. jgs5@cornell.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal pathogens.

Results: We have sequenced and analyzed the genome of the house fly using DNA from female flies. The sequenced genome is 691 Mb. Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment. There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies. Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.

Conclusions: This represents the first genome sequence of an insect that lives in intimate association with abundant animal pathogens. The house fly genome provides a rich resource for enabling work on innovative methods of insect control, for understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, genetic adaptation to high pathogen loads, and for exploring the basic biology of this important pest. The genome of this species will also serve as a close out-group to Drosophila in comparative genomic studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus