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Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

González A, Moenne F, Gómez M, Sáez CA, Contreras RA, Moenne A - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL(-1), or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months.Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes.Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL(-1), or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of inhibitors on GSH synthesis after treatment with OC kappa. Level of glutathione [GSH, (A)] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG, (B)] and of γ-glutamylcysteine synthase [γ-GCS, (C)] activity in control Eucalyptus trees (empty circles) and in trees treated with OC kappa (black circles) cultivated for 0–4 months without additional treatment. Level of GSH (D) in control Eucalyptus trees (control), in trees treated with OC kappa (kappa) and in trees treated with CHS-828 and OC kappa (CHS+K), lycorine and OC kappa (Lyc+K), buthionine sulfoximine and OC kappa (BSO+K) and auranofin and OC kappa (Aur+K) and cultivated for 4 months without additional treatment. GSH and GSSG levels are expressed in milligrams per gram of fresh tissue (FT) and the activity of γ-GCS is expressed in micromoles per minute per milligram of protein. Symbols and bars represent mean values of three independent experiments and letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05).
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Figure 3: Effect of inhibitors on GSH synthesis after treatment with OC kappa. Level of glutathione [GSH, (A)] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG, (B)] and of γ-glutamylcysteine synthase [γ-GCS, (C)] activity in control Eucalyptus trees (empty circles) and in trees treated with OC kappa (black circles) cultivated for 0–4 months without additional treatment. Level of GSH (D) in control Eucalyptus trees (control), in trees treated with OC kappa (kappa) and in trees treated with CHS-828 and OC kappa (CHS+K), lycorine and OC kappa (Lyc+K), buthionine sulfoximine and OC kappa (BSO+K) and auranofin and OC kappa (Aur+K) and cultivated for 4 months without additional treatment. GSH and GSSG levels are expressed in milligrams per gram of fresh tissue (FT) and the activity of γ-GCS is expressed in micromoles per minute per milligram of protein. Symbols and bars represent mean values of three independent experiments and letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05).

Mentions: At 4 months after treatment, glutathione (GSH) content in control Eucalyptus was c. 0.3 mg g−1 FT and in OC kappa-treated trees was c. 0.4 mg g−1 FT, corresponding to a c. 33% increase (Figure 3A). Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content in control trees was 0.1 mg g−1 FT and in trees treated with OC kappa it was 0.2 mg g−1 FT, which is 2-fold increase in relation to controls (Figure 3B). The activity of γ-GCS, the first and regulatory enzyme of GSH synthesis, was c. 72 μmoles min−1 mg−1 protein in control trees and c. 112 μmoles min−1 mg−1 protein OC kappa-treated trees, a c. 57% (Figure 3C). In relation to OC kappa treatment, there was a decrease in GSH levels in c. 33% under CHS-828, BSO, and auranofin, but not with lycorine (Figure 3D).


Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

González A, Moenne F, Gómez M, Sáez CA, Contreras RA, Moenne A - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Effect of inhibitors on GSH synthesis after treatment with OC kappa. Level of glutathione [GSH, (A)] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG, (B)] and of γ-glutamylcysteine synthase [γ-GCS, (C)] activity in control Eucalyptus trees (empty circles) and in trees treated with OC kappa (black circles) cultivated for 0–4 months without additional treatment. Level of GSH (D) in control Eucalyptus trees (control), in trees treated with OC kappa (kappa) and in trees treated with CHS-828 and OC kappa (CHS+K), lycorine and OC kappa (Lyc+K), buthionine sulfoximine and OC kappa (BSO+K) and auranofin and OC kappa (Aur+K) and cultivated for 4 months without additional treatment. GSH and GSSG levels are expressed in milligrams per gram of fresh tissue (FT) and the activity of γ-GCS is expressed in micromoles per minute per milligram of protein. Symbols and bars represent mean values of three independent experiments and letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195311&req=5

Figure 3: Effect of inhibitors on GSH synthesis after treatment with OC kappa. Level of glutathione [GSH, (A)] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG, (B)] and of γ-glutamylcysteine synthase [γ-GCS, (C)] activity in control Eucalyptus trees (empty circles) and in trees treated with OC kappa (black circles) cultivated for 0–4 months without additional treatment. Level of GSH (D) in control Eucalyptus trees (control), in trees treated with OC kappa (kappa) and in trees treated with CHS-828 and OC kappa (CHS+K), lycorine and OC kappa (Lyc+K), buthionine sulfoximine and OC kappa (BSO+K) and auranofin and OC kappa (Aur+K) and cultivated for 4 months without additional treatment. GSH and GSSG levels are expressed in milligrams per gram of fresh tissue (FT) and the activity of γ-GCS is expressed in micromoles per minute per milligram of protein. Symbols and bars represent mean values of three independent experiments and letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05).
Mentions: At 4 months after treatment, glutathione (GSH) content in control Eucalyptus was c. 0.3 mg g−1 FT and in OC kappa-treated trees was c. 0.4 mg g−1 FT, corresponding to a c. 33% increase (Figure 3A). Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content in control trees was 0.1 mg g−1 FT and in trees treated with OC kappa it was 0.2 mg g−1 FT, which is 2-fold increase in relation to controls (Figure 3B). The activity of γ-GCS, the first and regulatory enzyme of GSH synthesis, was c. 72 μmoles min−1 mg−1 protein in control trees and c. 112 μmoles min−1 mg−1 protein OC kappa-treated trees, a c. 57% (Figure 3C). In relation to OC kappa treatment, there was a decrease in GSH levels in c. 33% under CHS-828, BSO, and auranofin, but not with lycorine (Figure 3D).

Bottom Line: In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL(-1), or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months.Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes.Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL(-1), or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

No MeSH data available.