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The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis.

Fujii S, Wan CY - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations.Here, we propose the "SEP" hypothesis, which postulates that (1) "sound envelope processing" and (2) "synchronization and entrainment to pulse" may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication.Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Heart and Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute , Toronto, ON , Canada.

ABSTRACT
For thousands of years, human beings have engaged in rhythmic activities such as drumming, dancing, and singing. Rhythm can be a powerful medium to stimulate communication and social interactions, due to the strong sensorimotor coupling. For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations. Examining the relationship between rhythm and speech is fundamental not only to our understanding of the origins of human communication but also in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this paper, we explore whether rhythm has therapeutic potential for promoting recovery from speech and language dysfunctions. Although clinical studies are limited to date, existing experimental evidence demonstrates rich rhythmic organization in both music and language, as well as overlapping brain networks that are crucial in the design of rehabilitation approaches. Here, we propose the "SEP" hypothesis, which postulates that (1) "sound envelope processing" and (2) "synchronization and entrainment to pulse" may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication. Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An example of sound wave (upper panels), amplitude envelope (middle panels), and power spectrum (bottom panels) when a person speaks (left) and sings (right) “Happy birthday to you” that can be divided into six syllables (i.e., Ha/ppy/birth/day/to/you, see vertical dashed lines). Sound envelope is an important acoustic information that conveys temporal organization of phonemes and syllables or rhythm in vocalization. Note that rhythm in singing (right) has a more salient pulse- or beat-based timing compared with rhythm in speech (left).
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Figure 1: An example of sound wave (upper panels), amplitude envelope (middle panels), and power spectrum (bottom panels) when a person speaks (left) and sings (right) “Happy birthday to you” that can be divided into six syllables (i.e., Ha/ppy/birth/day/to/you, see vertical dashed lines). Sound envelope is an important acoustic information that conveys temporal organization of phonemes and syllables or rhythm in vocalization. Note that rhythm in singing (right) has a more salient pulse- or beat-based timing compared with rhythm in speech (left).

Mentions: Rhythm is essential to the understanding of speech. In order to comprehend spoken language, listeners are required to perceive temporal organization of phonemes, syllables, words, and phrases from an ongoing speech stream (Kotz and Schwartze, 2010; Patel, 2011; Peelle and Davis, 2012). An important source of acoustic information that conveys rhythm in speech is the sound envelope, which is defined as the acoustic power summed across all frequencies for a given frequency range (Kotz and Schwartze, 2010; Patel, 2011; Peelle and Davis, 2012). As illustrated in Figure 1, the phrase “Happy birthday to you” can be broken down into six syllables (i.e., “Ha/ppy/birth/day/to/you”), and these boundaries correspond to the pattern of the sound envelope (denoted by vertical dashed lines). Thus, burst patterns of the sound envelope represent rhythm or temporal organization in vocalization.


The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis.

Fujii S, Wan CY - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

An example of sound wave (upper panels), amplitude envelope (middle panels), and power spectrum (bottom panels) when a person speaks (left) and sings (right) “Happy birthday to you” that can be divided into six syllables (i.e., Ha/ppy/birth/day/to/you, see vertical dashed lines). Sound envelope is an important acoustic information that conveys temporal organization of phonemes and syllables or rhythm in vocalization. Note that rhythm in singing (right) has a more salient pulse- or beat-based timing compared with rhythm in speech (left).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195275&req=5

Figure 1: An example of sound wave (upper panels), amplitude envelope (middle panels), and power spectrum (bottom panels) when a person speaks (left) and sings (right) “Happy birthday to you” that can be divided into six syllables (i.e., Ha/ppy/birth/day/to/you, see vertical dashed lines). Sound envelope is an important acoustic information that conveys temporal organization of phonemes and syllables or rhythm in vocalization. Note that rhythm in singing (right) has a more salient pulse- or beat-based timing compared with rhythm in speech (left).
Mentions: Rhythm is essential to the understanding of speech. In order to comprehend spoken language, listeners are required to perceive temporal organization of phonemes, syllables, words, and phrases from an ongoing speech stream (Kotz and Schwartze, 2010; Patel, 2011; Peelle and Davis, 2012). An important source of acoustic information that conveys rhythm in speech is the sound envelope, which is defined as the acoustic power summed across all frequencies for a given frequency range (Kotz and Schwartze, 2010; Patel, 2011; Peelle and Davis, 2012). As illustrated in Figure 1, the phrase “Happy birthday to you” can be broken down into six syllables (i.e., “Ha/ppy/birth/day/to/you”), and these boundaries correspond to the pattern of the sound envelope (denoted by vertical dashed lines). Thus, burst patterns of the sound envelope represent rhythm or temporal organization in vocalization.

Bottom Line: For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations.Here, we propose the "SEP" hypothesis, which postulates that (1) "sound envelope processing" and (2) "synchronization and entrainment to pulse" may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication.Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Heart and Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute , Toronto, ON , Canada.

ABSTRACT
For thousands of years, human beings have engaged in rhythmic activities such as drumming, dancing, and singing. Rhythm can be a powerful medium to stimulate communication and social interactions, due to the strong sensorimotor coupling. For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations. Examining the relationship between rhythm and speech is fundamental not only to our understanding of the origins of human communication but also in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this paper, we explore whether rhythm has therapeutic potential for promoting recovery from speech and language dysfunctions. Although clinical studies are limited to date, existing experimental evidence demonstrates rich rhythmic organization in both music and language, as well as overlapping brain networks that are crucial in the design of rehabilitation approaches. Here, we propose the "SEP" hypothesis, which postulates that (1) "sound envelope processing" and (2) "synchronization and entrainment to pulse" may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication. Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus