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Fructose induced endotoxemia in pediatric nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.

Jin R, Willment A, Patel SS, Sun X, Song M, Mannery YO, Kosters A, McClain CJ, Vos MB - Int J Hepatol (2014)

Bottom Line: In a 24-hour feeding study, endotoxin levels in NAFLD adolescents increased after fructose beverages (consumed with meals) as compared to healthy children.Similarly, endotoxin was significantly increased after adolescents consumed fructose beverages for 2 weeks and remained high although not significantly at 4 weeks.In conclusion, these data provide support for the concept of low level endotoxemia contributing to pediatric NAFLD and the possible role of fructose in this process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, 2015 Uppergate Drive NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

ABSTRACT
In preclinical studies of fructose-induced NAFLD, endotoxin appears to play an important role. We retrospectively examined samples from three pediatric cohorts (1) to investigate whether endotoxemia is associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis; (2) to evaluate postprandial endotoxin levels in response to fructose beverage in an acute 24-hour feeding challenge, and (3) to determine the change of fasting endotoxin amounts in a 4-week randomized controlled trial comparing fructose to glucose beverages in NAFLD. We found that adolescents with hepatic steatosis had elevated endotoxin levels compared to obese controls and that the endotoxin level correlated with insulin resistance and several inflammatory cytokines. In a 24-hour feeding study, endotoxin levels in NAFLD adolescents increased after fructose beverages (consumed with meals) as compared to healthy children. Similarly, endotoxin was significantly increased after adolescents consumed fructose beverages for 2 weeks and remained high although not significantly at 4 weeks. In conclusion, these data provide support for the concept of low level endotoxemia contributing to pediatric NAFLD and the possible role of fructose in this process. Further studies are needed to determine if manipulation of the microbiome or other methods of endotoxin reduction would be useful as a therapy for pediatric NAFLD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage change of plasma endotoxin level in adolescents with NAFLD after 2- and 4-week ingestion of study-provided fructose or glucose-only beverages. Baseline values were set as reference (100%). Error bars stand for SE.
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fig3: Percentage change of plasma endotoxin level in adolescents with NAFLD after 2- and 4-week ingestion of study-provided fructose or glucose-only beverages. Baseline values were set as reference (100%). Error bars stand for SE.

Mentions: Finally, we measured endotoxin in samples from adolescents with NAFLD who participated in a 4-week study of fructose beverages compared to glucose beverages. The baseline characteristics of the 16 adolescents with hepatic steatosis who participated in the 4-week beverage trial are presented in Table 3. There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, glycemic status, and lipid profile between the two groups. Compared to baseline, after drinking 3 study-provided fructose beverages per day, participants had significantly increased fasting plasma endotoxin levels at 2 weeks (mean ± SD: 1.21 ± 0.29 versus 1.45 ± 0.50 EU/mL, P = 0.018) and a trend for increased endotoxin at 4 weeks (mean ± SD: 1.21 ± 0.29 versus 1.47 ± 0.53 EU/mL, P = 0.088), while adolescents who consumed glucose beverages did not have increased endotoxin levels (mean ± SD: 1.61 ± 0.69, 1.39 ± 0.38, and 1.55 ± 0.55 EU/mL at weeks 0, 2, and 4, resp.) (Figure 3).


Fructose induced endotoxemia in pediatric nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.

Jin R, Willment A, Patel SS, Sun X, Song M, Mannery YO, Kosters A, McClain CJ, Vos MB - Int J Hepatol (2014)

Percentage change of plasma endotoxin level in adolescents with NAFLD after 2- and 4-week ingestion of study-provided fructose or glucose-only beverages. Baseline values were set as reference (100%). Error bars stand for SE.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4195259&req=5

fig3: Percentage change of plasma endotoxin level in adolescents with NAFLD after 2- and 4-week ingestion of study-provided fructose or glucose-only beverages. Baseline values were set as reference (100%). Error bars stand for SE.
Mentions: Finally, we measured endotoxin in samples from adolescents with NAFLD who participated in a 4-week study of fructose beverages compared to glucose beverages. The baseline characteristics of the 16 adolescents with hepatic steatosis who participated in the 4-week beverage trial are presented in Table 3. There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, glycemic status, and lipid profile between the two groups. Compared to baseline, after drinking 3 study-provided fructose beverages per day, participants had significantly increased fasting plasma endotoxin levels at 2 weeks (mean ± SD: 1.21 ± 0.29 versus 1.45 ± 0.50 EU/mL, P = 0.018) and a trend for increased endotoxin at 4 weeks (mean ± SD: 1.21 ± 0.29 versus 1.47 ± 0.53 EU/mL, P = 0.088), while adolescents who consumed glucose beverages did not have increased endotoxin levels (mean ± SD: 1.61 ± 0.69, 1.39 ± 0.38, and 1.55 ± 0.55 EU/mL at weeks 0, 2, and 4, resp.) (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: In a 24-hour feeding study, endotoxin levels in NAFLD adolescents increased after fructose beverages (consumed with meals) as compared to healthy children.Similarly, endotoxin was significantly increased after adolescents consumed fructose beverages for 2 weeks and remained high although not significantly at 4 weeks.In conclusion, these data provide support for the concept of low level endotoxemia contributing to pediatric NAFLD and the possible role of fructose in this process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, 2015 Uppergate Drive NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

ABSTRACT
In preclinical studies of fructose-induced NAFLD, endotoxin appears to play an important role. We retrospectively examined samples from three pediatric cohorts (1) to investigate whether endotoxemia is associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis; (2) to evaluate postprandial endotoxin levels in response to fructose beverage in an acute 24-hour feeding challenge, and (3) to determine the change of fasting endotoxin amounts in a 4-week randomized controlled trial comparing fructose to glucose beverages in NAFLD. We found that adolescents with hepatic steatosis had elevated endotoxin levels compared to obese controls and that the endotoxin level correlated with insulin resistance and several inflammatory cytokines. In a 24-hour feeding study, endotoxin levels in NAFLD adolescents increased after fructose beverages (consumed with meals) as compared to healthy children. Similarly, endotoxin was significantly increased after adolescents consumed fructose beverages for 2 weeks and remained high although not significantly at 4 weeks. In conclusion, these data provide support for the concept of low level endotoxemia contributing to pediatric NAFLD and the possible role of fructose in this process. Further studies are needed to determine if manipulation of the microbiome or other methods of endotoxin reduction would be useful as a therapy for pediatric NAFLD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus