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Disease dynamics and potential mitigation among restored and wild staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis.

Miller MW, Lohr KE, Cameron CM, Williams DE, Peters EC - PeerJ (2014)

Bottom Line: Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites.No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD) and rapid tissue loss (RTL).Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: NOAA-National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center , Miami, FL , United States.

ABSTRACT
The threatened status (both ecologically and legally) of Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, has prompted rapidly expanding efforts in culture and restocking, although tissue loss diseases continue to affect populations. In this study, disease surveillance and histopathological characterization were used to compare disease dynamics and conditions in both restored and extant wild populations. Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites. A subset of 20 haphazardly selected colonies at each site observed over a four-month period revealed widely varying disease incidence, although not between restored and wild sites, and a case fatality rate of 8%. A tropical storm was the only discernable environmental trigger associated with a consistent spike in incidence across all sites. Lastly, two field mitigation techniques, (1) excision of apparently healthy branch tips from a diseased colony, and (2) placement of a band of epoxy fully enclosing the diseased margin, gave equivocal results with no significant benefit detected for either treatment compared to controls. Tissue condition of associated samples was fair to very poor; unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples had severe degeneration of mesenterial filament cnidoglandular bands. Polyp mucocytes in all samples were infected with suspect rickettsia-like organisms; however, no bacterial aggregates were found. No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD) and rapid tissue loss (RTL). Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histology parameter scores comparisons.(A) Apparently healthy samples vs. diseased samples. (B) Successful vs. unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples. (C) Microscopic characteristics of WBD vs. RTL samples.
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fig-7: Histology parameter scores comparisons.(A) Apparently healthy samples vs. diseased samples. (B) Successful vs. unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples. (C) Microscopic characteristics of WBD vs. RTL samples.

Mentions: Comparison of the apparently healthy samples with all diseased samples (Fig. 7A) revealed that all parameter scores were significantly different, except for Epidermal and Filament RLOs (p = 0.165 and 0.767, respectively, t-test, Table S3). Epidermal RLOs were judged to be moderate to marked in severity; filament RLOs were mostly judged to be minimal to marked in severity in both groups. For the samples in the mitigation experiment (Fig. 7B), histological parameters were significantly different between successful and unsuccessful treatments only for Mesenterial Filament Mucocytes and Degeneration of Cnidoglandular Bands (p = 0.0097 and 0.017, respectively, Mann–Whitney U-test, Table S3). Number of mucocytes in the filaments was markedly fewer in samples from colonies where mitigation was not successful, in addition the filament epithelium had moderate to severe atrophy, loss of cnidocytes and acidophilic granular gland cells, and necrosis or apoptosis of remaining cells. Samples categorized as WBD or RTL in their patterns of tissue loss (Fig. 7C) only differed in Epidermal RLOs scores (p = 0.031, Mann–Whitney U-test, Table S3).


Disease dynamics and potential mitigation among restored and wild staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis.

Miller MW, Lohr KE, Cameron CM, Williams DE, Peters EC - PeerJ (2014)

Histology parameter scores comparisons.(A) Apparently healthy samples vs. diseased samples. (B) Successful vs. unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples. (C) Microscopic characteristics of WBD vs. RTL samples.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4157300&req=5

fig-7: Histology parameter scores comparisons.(A) Apparently healthy samples vs. diseased samples. (B) Successful vs. unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples. (C) Microscopic characteristics of WBD vs. RTL samples.
Mentions: Comparison of the apparently healthy samples with all diseased samples (Fig. 7A) revealed that all parameter scores were significantly different, except for Epidermal and Filament RLOs (p = 0.165 and 0.767, respectively, t-test, Table S3). Epidermal RLOs were judged to be moderate to marked in severity; filament RLOs were mostly judged to be minimal to marked in severity in both groups. For the samples in the mitigation experiment (Fig. 7B), histological parameters were significantly different between successful and unsuccessful treatments only for Mesenterial Filament Mucocytes and Degeneration of Cnidoglandular Bands (p = 0.0097 and 0.017, respectively, Mann–Whitney U-test, Table S3). Number of mucocytes in the filaments was markedly fewer in samples from colonies where mitigation was not successful, in addition the filament epithelium had moderate to severe atrophy, loss of cnidocytes and acidophilic granular gland cells, and necrosis or apoptosis of remaining cells. Samples categorized as WBD or RTL in their patterns of tissue loss (Fig. 7C) only differed in Epidermal RLOs scores (p = 0.031, Mann–Whitney U-test, Table S3).

Bottom Line: Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites.No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD) and rapid tissue loss (RTL).Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: NOAA-National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center , Miami, FL , United States.

ABSTRACT
The threatened status (both ecologically and legally) of Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, has prompted rapidly expanding efforts in culture and restocking, although tissue loss diseases continue to affect populations. In this study, disease surveillance and histopathological characterization were used to compare disease dynamics and conditions in both restored and extant wild populations. Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites. A subset of 20 haphazardly selected colonies at each site observed over a four-month period revealed widely varying disease incidence, although not between restored and wild sites, and a case fatality rate of 8%. A tropical storm was the only discernable environmental trigger associated with a consistent spike in incidence across all sites. Lastly, two field mitigation techniques, (1) excision of apparently healthy branch tips from a diseased colony, and (2) placement of a band of epoxy fully enclosing the diseased margin, gave equivocal results with no significant benefit detected for either treatment compared to controls. Tissue condition of associated samples was fair to very poor; unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples had severe degeneration of mesenterial filament cnidoglandular bands. Polyp mucocytes in all samples were infected with suspect rickettsia-like organisms; however, no bacterial aggregates were found. No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD) and rapid tissue loss (RTL). Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus