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Comparative clinical evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator over conventional local anesthesia in children seeking dental procedures: A clinical study.

Varadharaja M, Udhya J, Srinivasan I, Sivakumar JS, Karthik RS, Manivanan M - J Pharm Bioallied Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA).Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78%) was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%).TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, C. S. I. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of pain control by employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) over conventional injectable local anesthesia for children requiring restorative procedures under rubber dam.

Materials and methods: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA). The level of comfort and discomfort experienced during TENS and conventional LA was determined using visual analog scale (VAS) and heart rate.

Result: Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78%) was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%). In VAS, the mean values for pain indicate that minimum pain was felt with TENS, which was closely followed by LA.

Conclusion: TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experiment group (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator)
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Figure 3: Experiment group (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator)

Mentions: The site of electrode pad was gently swabbed with surgical spirit to remove any skin oils or substances that may interfere with the flow of current. Electrode gel was applied on the electrode pad before placement. The patient was instructed to open the mouth wide as done during the treatment and then the electrode pad was secured in place using surgical tape to minimize displacement [Figure 3]. The system was switched on, and the investigator controlled the level of electronic anesthesia by gradually raising the amplitude dial until the patient felt a significant sensation. For the patient to acclimatize to the new sensation of electronic anesthesia, this amplitude level was maintained for an initial duration of 20 s. The amplitude is raised to the next level and the cycle was repeated, until the fasciculation was noted on the lower lip in case of mandibular arch. Muscle fasciculation is the sign of reaching the “minimal therapeutic level” at which the procedure can began. The heart rate using a pulse oximeter of the subject was recorded after the stimulation was begun, rubber dam was placed and restorative procedure was carried out. The subject was instructed to indicate the level of comfort or discomfort felt by him/her using a visual analog scale (VAS) [Figure 4].


Comparative clinical evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator over conventional local anesthesia in children seeking dental procedures: A clinical study.

Varadharaja M, Udhya J, Srinivasan I, Sivakumar JS, Karthik RS, Manivanan M - J Pharm Bioallied Sci (2014)

Experiment group (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4157246&req=5

Figure 3: Experiment group (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator)
Mentions: The site of electrode pad was gently swabbed with surgical spirit to remove any skin oils or substances that may interfere with the flow of current. Electrode gel was applied on the electrode pad before placement. The patient was instructed to open the mouth wide as done during the treatment and then the electrode pad was secured in place using surgical tape to minimize displacement [Figure 3]. The system was switched on, and the investigator controlled the level of electronic anesthesia by gradually raising the amplitude dial until the patient felt a significant sensation. For the patient to acclimatize to the new sensation of electronic anesthesia, this amplitude level was maintained for an initial duration of 20 s. The amplitude is raised to the next level and the cycle was repeated, until the fasciculation was noted on the lower lip in case of mandibular arch. Muscle fasciculation is the sign of reaching the “minimal therapeutic level” at which the procedure can began. The heart rate using a pulse oximeter of the subject was recorded after the stimulation was begun, rubber dam was placed and restorative procedure was carried out. The subject was instructed to indicate the level of comfort or discomfort felt by him/her using a visual analog scale (VAS) [Figure 4].

Bottom Line: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA).Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78%) was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%).TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, C. S. I. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of pain control by employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) over conventional injectable local anesthesia for children requiring restorative procedures under rubber dam.

Materials and methods: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left) side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA). The level of comfort and discomfort experienced during TENS and conventional LA was determined using visual analog scale (VAS) and heart rate.

Result: Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78%) was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%). In VAS, the mean values for pain indicate that minimum pain was felt with TENS, which was closely followed by LA.

Conclusion: TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus