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Sympathetic glial cells and macrophages develop different responses to Trypanosoma cruzi infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

de Almeida-Leite CM, Silva IC, Galvão LM, Arantes RM - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2014)

Bottom Line: T. cruzi infection was greater in glial cells, despite similar levels of NO production in both cell types.Glial cells responded similarly to T. cruzi and LPS, but were less responsive to LPS than macrophages were.Moreover, our findings will facilitate future research into the immune responses and activation mechanisms of peripheral glial cells, which are important for understanding the paradoxical responses of this cell type in neuronal lesions and neuroprotection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) participates in neuronal lesions in the digestive form of Chagas disease and the proximity of parasitised glial cells and neurons in damaged myenteric ganglia is a frequent finding. Glial cells have crucial roles in many neuropathological situations and are potential sources of NO. Here, we investigate peripheral glial cell response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection to clarify the role of these cells in the neuronal lesion pathogenesis of Chagas disease. We used primary glial cell cultures from superior cervical ganglion to investigate cell activation and NO production after T. cruzi infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in comparison to peritoneal macrophages. T. cruzi infection was greater in glial cells, despite similar levels of NO production in both cell types. Glial cells responded similarly to T. cruzi and LPS, but were less responsive to LPS than macrophages were. Our observations contribute to the understanding of Chagas disease pathogenesis, as based on the high susceptibility of autonomic glial cells to T. cruzi infection with subsequent NO production. Moreover, our findings will facilitate future research into the immune responses and activation mechanisms of peripheral glial cells, which are important for understanding the paradoxical responses of this cell type in neuronal lesions and neuroprotection.

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: nitric oxide (NO) production in glial cells and macrophages.Trypanosoma cruzi-infected (A) orlipopolysaccharide-activated glial cell or macrophage cultures (B). The datacorrespond to the median of four (A) or three (B) independent experiments intriplicate. Asterisks mean statistically significant differences to controls(medium) (p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). MLI statisticallydifferent from MTI (p < 0.01, unpaired t test). G: glialcell; I: interferon-γ; L: lipopolysaccharide;M: macrophage; T: T. cruzi.
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f03: : nitric oxide (NO) production in glial cells and macrophages.Trypanosoma cruzi-infected (A) orlipopolysaccharide-activated glial cell or macrophage cultures (B). The datacorrespond to the median of four (A) or three (B) independent experiments intriplicate. Asterisks mean statistically significant differences to controls(medium) (p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). MLI statisticallydifferent from MTI (p < 0.01, unpaired t test). G: glialcell; I: interferon-γ; L: lipopolysaccharide;M: macrophage; T: T. cruzi.

Mentions: In comparison to the controls, the T. cruzi-infected andIFN-γ-activated glial cells showed significantly higher levels of NO production at 48 hp.i. (Fig. 3A). Similarly, treatment with IFN-γand T. cruzi infection resulted in significant levels of NO productionin comparison to all controls in macrophage cultures. Nonetheless, the macrophages weremore responsive to LPS than to T. cruzi in the presence of IFN-γ (Fig. 3A, B).There was no significant difference with regard to NO production between the T.cruzi-infected and IFN-γ-activated glial cell or macrophage cultures.


Sympathetic glial cells and macrophages develop different responses to Trypanosoma cruzi infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

de Almeida-Leite CM, Silva IC, Galvão LM, Arantes RM - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2014)

: nitric oxide (NO) production in glial cells and macrophages.Trypanosoma cruzi-infected (A) orlipopolysaccharide-activated glial cell or macrophage cultures (B). The datacorrespond to the median of four (A) or three (B) independent experiments intriplicate. Asterisks mean statistically significant differences to controls(medium) (p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). MLI statisticallydifferent from MTI (p < 0.01, unpaired t test). G: glialcell; I: interferon-γ; L: lipopolysaccharide;M: macrophage; T: T. cruzi.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4155848&req=5

f03: : nitric oxide (NO) production in glial cells and macrophages.Trypanosoma cruzi-infected (A) orlipopolysaccharide-activated glial cell or macrophage cultures (B). The datacorrespond to the median of four (A) or three (B) independent experiments intriplicate. Asterisks mean statistically significant differences to controls(medium) (p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). MLI statisticallydifferent from MTI (p < 0.01, unpaired t test). G: glialcell; I: interferon-γ; L: lipopolysaccharide;M: macrophage; T: T. cruzi.
Mentions: In comparison to the controls, the T. cruzi-infected andIFN-γ-activated glial cells showed significantly higher levels of NO production at 48 hp.i. (Fig. 3A). Similarly, treatment with IFN-γand T. cruzi infection resulted in significant levels of NO productionin comparison to all controls in macrophage cultures. Nonetheless, the macrophages weremore responsive to LPS than to T. cruzi in the presence of IFN-γ (Fig. 3A, B).There was no significant difference with regard to NO production between the T.cruzi-infected and IFN-γ-activated glial cell or macrophage cultures.

Bottom Line: T. cruzi infection was greater in glial cells, despite similar levels of NO production in both cell types.Glial cells responded similarly to T. cruzi and LPS, but were less responsive to LPS than macrophages were.Moreover, our findings will facilitate future research into the immune responses and activation mechanisms of peripheral glial cells, which are important for understanding the paradoxical responses of this cell type in neuronal lesions and neuroprotection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) participates in neuronal lesions in the digestive form of Chagas disease and the proximity of parasitised glial cells and neurons in damaged myenteric ganglia is a frequent finding. Glial cells have crucial roles in many neuropathological situations and are potential sources of NO. Here, we investigate peripheral glial cell response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection to clarify the role of these cells in the neuronal lesion pathogenesis of Chagas disease. We used primary glial cell cultures from superior cervical ganglion to investigate cell activation and NO production after T. cruzi infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in comparison to peritoneal macrophages. T. cruzi infection was greater in glial cells, despite similar levels of NO production in both cell types. Glial cells responded similarly to T. cruzi and LPS, but were less responsive to LPS than macrophages were. Our observations contribute to the understanding of Chagas disease pathogenesis, as based on the high susceptibility of autonomic glial cells to T. cruzi infection with subsequent NO production. Moreover, our findings will facilitate future research into the immune responses and activation mechanisms of peripheral glial cells, which are important for understanding the paradoxical responses of this cell type in neuronal lesions and neuroprotection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus