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PGMS: a case study of collecting PDA-based geo-tagged malaria-related survey data.

Zhou Y, Lobo NF, Wolkon A, Gimnig JE, Malishee A, Stevenson J - Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2014)

Bottom Line: The framework includes two parts: the database designed for subsequent cross-sectional data analysis and the customized programs for the six study sites (two in Kenya, three in Indonesia, and one in Tanzania).Since 2008, PGMS has successfully accomplished quite a few surveys that recorded 10,871 compounds and households, 52,126 persons, and 17,100 bed nets from the six sites.These numbers are still growing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Department of Public Health, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia nancyzhou04@gmail.com.

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Four kinds of controls used in personal digital assistant (PDA)-Geo-tagged malaria-related data collection tool (PGMS). (A) Text entry, (B) Dropdown lists, (C) Checkboxes, and (D) Radio buttons.
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Figure 3: Four kinds of controls used in personal digital assistant (PDA)-Geo-tagged malaria-related data collection tool (PGMS). (A) Text entry, (B) Dropdown lists, (C) Checkboxes, and (D) Radio buttons.

Mentions: Four major controls are used to enter data into PGMS: radio buttons, checkboxes, dropdown lists, and text entry fields. To avoid data entry errors, we choose different controls for different entry scenarios. According to the feedback obtained in training sessions, we compared the ease of use of the four controls and found text entry fields to be least efficient and most error prone. Therefore, we use text entry fields as little as possible; they are only used when a number of unknown characters need to be input, such as names and some numeric entries (Figure 3A). Dropdown lists and checkboxes allow users to select multiple items from a list of possible choices. Checkboxes enable clearer layout to elicit faster performance (see Figure 3C) and are preferred over dropdown lists. When one screen cannot accommodate enough checkboxes to display all responses for one question, we have to adopt dropdown lists. Visual CE 10 (the development tool of PGMS that is described in the Hardware and Software Used in Developing and Conducting PGMS section in more detail) also provides a kind of special dropdown list called a dependent dropdown list that automatically filters the options in a dependent dropdown list according to the value that the user selects in another control on the form. For example, in Figure 3B, Location is the filter that the options shown in the EA dropdown list depend on. Under the location of E.NYAKACH, there are only two EAs: DOL/NDUGA and KAMWANA. We provide radio buttons rather than dropdown lists when users need to choose one response from a list of mutually exclusive options because radio buttons can provide a more friendly user interface (Figure 3D). To prevent controls from becoming “invisible” under the strong sunshine conditions, which are very common in tropical areas, we use + on a light PDA background to produce a high contrast.


PGMS: a case study of collecting PDA-based geo-tagged malaria-related survey data.

Zhou Y, Lobo NF, Wolkon A, Gimnig JE, Malishee A, Stevenson J - Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2014)

Four kinds of controls used in personal digital assistant (PDA)-Geo-tagged malaria-related data collection tool (PGMS). (A) Text entry, (B) Dropdown lists, (C) Checkboxes, and (D) Radio buttons.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4155550&req=5

Figure 3: Four kinds of controls used in personal digital assistant (PDA)-Geo-tagged malaria-related data collection tool (PGMS). (A) Text entry, (B) Dropdown lists, (C) Checkboxes, and (D) Radio buttons.
Mentions: Four major controls are used to enter data into PGMS: radio buttons, checkboxes, dropdown lists, and text entry fields. To avoid data entry errors, we choose different controls for different entry scenarios. According to the feedback obtained in training sessions, we compared the ease of use of the four controls and found text entry fields to be least efficient and most error prone. Therefore, we use text entry fields as little as possible; they are only used when a number of unknown characters need to be input, such as names and some numeric entries (Figure 3A). Dropdown lists and checkboxes allow users to select multiple items from a list of possible choices. Checkboxes enable clearer layout to elicit faster performance (see Figure 3C) and are preferred over dropdown lists. When one screen cannot accommodate enough checkboxes to display all responses for one question, we have to adopt dropdown lists. Visual CE 10 (the development tool of PGMS that is described in the Hardware and Software Used in Developing and Conducting PGMS section in more detail) also provides a kind of special dropdown list called a dependent dropdown list that automatically filters the options in a dependent dropdown list according to the value that the user selects in another control on the form. For example, in Figure 3B, Location is the filter that the options shown in the EA dropdown list depend on. Under the location of E.NYAKACH, there are only two EAs: DOL/NDUGA and KAMWANA. We provide radio buttons rather than dropdown lists when users need to choose one response from a list of mutually exclusive options because radio buttons can provide a more friendly user interface (Figure 3D). To prevent controls from becoming “invisible” under the strong sunshine conditions, which are very common in tropical areas, we use + on a light PDA background to produce a high contrast.

Bottom Line: The framework includes two parts: the database designed for subsequent cross-sectional data analysis and the customized programs for the six study sites (two in Kenya, three in Indonesia, and one in Tanzania).Since 2008, PGMS has successfully accomplished quite a few surveys that recorded 10,871 compounds and households, 52,126 persons, and 17,100 bed nets from the six sites.These numbers are still growing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Department of Public Health, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia nancyzhou04@gmail.com.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus