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Regulation of toll-like receptors-mediated inflammation by immunobiotics in bovine intestinal epitheliocytes: role of signaling pathways and negative regulators.

Villena J, Aso H, Kitazawa H - Front Immunol (2014)

Bottom Line: This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle.Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs.This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunobiotics Research Group , Tucuman , Argentina ; Laboratory of Immunobiotechnology, Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CONICET) , Tucuman , Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) detect bacterial and viral associated molecular patterns via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining immune tolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics) for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines, and despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group has established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway by Lactobacillus casei OLL2768, Bifidobacterium adolescentis MCC-75, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC15705 in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells). Anti-inflammatory immunobiotic strains up-regulate the expression of TLR negative regulators, reduce the activation phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and diminish the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells.
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Figure 2: Modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway by Lactobacillus casei OLL2768, Bifidobacterium adolescentis MCC-75, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC15705 in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells). Anti-inflammatory immunobiotic strains up-regulate the expression of TLR negative regulators, reduce the activation phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and diminish the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells.

Mentions: It is not possible to give a precise molecular mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of L. casei OLL2768 on BIE cells at present. However, it could be hypothesized that interaction of L. casei OLL2768 with BIE cells through one or more PRRs induces the up-regulation of the negative regulators Bcl-3 and Tollip, which reduce the production of inflammatory mediators in response to heat-stable ETEC MAMPs (Figure 2). One of the possible PRR involved in L. casei OLL2768 immunoregulatory capacities could be TLR2. Studies with the TLR2 ligand Pam3CSK4 in BIE cells demonstrated that the treatment with the TLR2 agonist up-regulate the expression of Tollip and reduce activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways (19). However, further research is needed to resolve which PRR is activated by L. casei OLL2768 for the induction of negative regulators.


Regulation of toll-like receptors-mediated inflammation by immunobiotics in bovine intestinal epitheliocytes: role of signaling pathways and negative regulators.

Villena J, Aso H, Kitazawa H - Front Immunol (2014)

Modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway by Lactobacillus casei OLL2768, Bifidobacterium adolescentis MCC-75, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC15705 in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells). Anti-inflammatory immunobiotic strains up-regulate the expression of TLR negative regulators, reduce the activation phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and diminish the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4151153&req=5

Figure 2: Modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway by Lactobacillus casei OLL2768, Bifidobacterium adolescentis MCC-75, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC15705 in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells). Anti-inflammatory immunobiotic strains up-regulate the expression of TLR negative regulators, reduce the activation phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and diminish the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells.
Mentions: It is not possible to give a precise molecular mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of L. casei OLL2768 on BIE cells at present. However, it could be hypothesized that interaction of L. casei OLL2768 with BIE cells through one or more PRRs induces the up-regulation of the negative regulators Bcl-3 and Tollip, which reduce the production of inflammatory mediators in response to heat-stable ETEC MAMPs (Figure 2). One of the possible PRR involved in L. casei OLL2768 immunoregulatory capacities could be TLR2. Studies with the TLR2 ligand Pam3CSK4 in BIE cells demonstrated that the treatment with the TLR2 agonist up-regulate the expression of Tollip and reduce activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways (19). However, further research is needed to resolve which PRR is activated by L. casei OLL2768 for the induction of negative regulators.

Bottom Line: This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle.Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs.This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunobiotics Research Group , Tucuman , Argentina ; Laboratory of Immunobiotechnology, Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CONICET) , Tucuman , Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) detect bacterial and viral associated molecular patterns via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining immune tolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics) for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines, and despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group has established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus