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Regulation of toll-like receptors-mediated inflammation by immunobiotics in bovine intestinal epitheliocytes: role of signaling pathways and negative regulators.

Villena J, Aso H, Kitazawa H - Front Immunol (2014)

Bottom Line: This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle.Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs.This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunobiotics Research Group , Tucuman , Argentina ; Laboratory of Immunobiotechnology, Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CONICET) , Tucuman , Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) detect bacterial and viral associated molecular patterns via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining immune tolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics) for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines, and despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group has established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells) (A). Upon recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR4 dimerizes and initiates a signaling cascades that include phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and culminates in the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells (B).
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Figure 1: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells) (A). Upon recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR4 dimerizes and initiates a signaling cascades that include phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and culminates in the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells (B).

Mentions: Expression of TLRs mRNA in BIE cells was evaluated by RT-qPCR and it was demonstrated that all TLRs genes were expressed in BIE cells (19). TLR1, 3, 4, and 6 were strongly expressed, followed by TLR5, 8, 9, 10, 2, and 7. We were particularly interested in expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in BIE cells as the main receptors detecting Gram(+) probiotic bacteria and Gram(−) pathogens, respectively. Therefore, to confirm real-time PCR findings, we further examined the expression of TLR2 and 4 proteins in BIE cells using anti-TLRs antibodies that are able to cross-react with bovine TLRs (19). Visualization of the immunofluorescence staining confirmed the protein expression of TLR2 and 4 in BIE cells (Figure 1A).


Regulation of toll-like receptors-mediated inflammation by immunobiotics in bovine intestinal epitheliocytes: role of signaling pathways and negative regulators.

Villena J, Aso H, Kitazawa H - Front Immunol (2014)

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells) (A). Upon recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR4 dimerizes and initiates a signaling cascades that include phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and culminates in the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells (B).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4151153&req=5

Figure 1: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in bovine intestinal epithelial epitheliocytes (BIE cells) (A). Upon recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR4 dimerizes and initiates a signaling cascades that include phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways; and culminates in the production of inflammatory mediators by BIE cells (B).
Mentions: Expression of TLRs mRNA in BIE cells was evaluated by RT-qPCR and it was demonstrated that all TLRs genes were expressed in BIE cells (19). TLR1, 3, 4, and 6 were strongly expressed, followed by TLR5, 8, 9, 10, 2, and 7. We were particularly interested in expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in BIE cells as the main receptors detecting Gram(+) probiotic bacteria and Gram(−) pathogens, respectively. Therefore, to confirm real-time PCR findings, we further examined the expression of TLR2 and 4 proteins in BIE cells using anti-TLRs antibodies that are able to cross-react with bovine TLRs (19). Visualization of the immunofluorescence staining confirmed the protein expression of TLR2 and 4 in BIE cells (Figure 1A).

Bottom Line: This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle.Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs.This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunobiotics Research Group , Tucuman , Argentina ; Laboratory of Immunobiotechnology, Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CONICET) , Tucuman , Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) detect bacterial and viral associated molecular patterns via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining immune tolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics) for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines, and despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group has established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus